Method of Information and Communication for Paper 1 Unit VIII (Information and Communication) as Per New 2020 Syllabus

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Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-Mail, Audio and Video-Conferencing (ICT)

Basics of Internet

  • The Internet is a global and grand computer network, called the network of networks. The internet is a global TCP/IP based network. It links a large number of autonomous systems, intranets, internets, LANs, MANs and WANs.

  • The Internet has its root in the ARPANET system of the Advanced Research Project Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense. ARPANET was the first WAN and had only four sites in 1969.

  • The internet evolved from basic ideas of ARPANET for interconnecting computers was used by research organisations and universities initially to share and exchange information.

  • In 1989 U.S. Government lifted restrictions on use of internet and allowed it to be used for commercial purposes as well. Since then, the internet has grown rapidly to become the world’s largest network.

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Who Manages Internet?

  • Some groups have been formed to take care of the shared resources of Internet. One such body is called IAM (Internet Architecture Board), earlier called Internet Activities Board, as named by ARPA.

  • There are two main wings to this Board:

    • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

    • IRTF (Internet Research Task Force)

    • IAB (Internet Architecture Board)

  • IETF consists consist of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the evolution of internet architecture and he smooth operation of Internet. IETF is responsible for defining standards and does a documentation of internet known as RFC (Request for Comments).

  • IRTF looks into running term research problems, many of which are at times critical to the Internet.

  • IAB oversees the IETF and IRTF. It also ratifies any major change to the Internet that comes from the IETF.

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  • How internet Works?

    • All computers and other equipment’s within any given network are basically connected to each other with the help of cables. The messages travel across the network with the help of networking protocols.

    • The protocols used over the internet provide addresses for the computers attached to the physical network. In this way, different types of networks communicate with each other using the same protocol.

    • To interpret the information being transmitted it is essential that the right software and hardware be in place. The commonly used protocols are:

  • Internet Protocols (IP)

    • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

    • Together they are called as TCP/IP protocol.

  • Protocols

    A protocol is a set of rules that governs data communications. Protocol defines the method of communication, how to communicate, when to communicate etc. Important elements of protocol are:

    • Syntax

    • Semantics

    • Timing

    • Syntax

  • IP Addresses

    • An IP address is a numeric identifier assigned to each machine on an IP network. IP address is a software address, not a hardware address, which is hard coded in the machine or NIC. An IP address is made up of 32 bits of information.

    • These bits are divided into four parts containing 8 bit each. The 32 bit IP address is a structured or hierarchical address. The network address uniquely identifies each network. Every machine on the same network shares that network address as part of its IP address.

    • The IP address 121.45.67.45, the 121.45 is the network address and 67.45 is the node address. The node address is assigned to and uniquely identifies, each machine on a network. The router might able to speed a packet on its way after reading only the first bits of address.

  • Hosts

    • Each host on the internet has a unique TCP/IP address, which is four numbers separated by dots. An example address is 123.45.54.32 which is the TCP/IP address of a computer.

    • The TCP/IP address known as a physical address. All the four numbers will be in the range 0-256. These don’t mean much to users, so logical names are allocated to host computers as well, 123.45.54.32 may also be known as xli.cet.ac.au.

    • Communication is established between a user and da host computer by using the TCP/IP address. Data is sent from the user with the destination address being as the host computer. The host computer, when sending data back to the user, specifies the destination address of the user.

  • Servers

    • Servers are host computers which provide a service to users. An example of server’s service could be the storage and retrieval of files and documents.

    • Other types of servers are www (World Wide Web) servers, ftp (file transfer protocol) servers, gopher servers, mail servers and news servers.

    • Each server uses a specific protocol or method of communication based on TCP/IP. For example, www servers use the HTTP protocol, mail server’s uses SMTP protocol, and news servers use NNTP protocol.

  • Hyper-links

    A hyperlink is a clickable link to another document or resource. It is normally shown in blue underline. When a user clicks on this link, the client will retrieve the document associated with that link, by requesting the document rom the designed server upon which it resides.

  • URL’s

    • A uniform Resource locator is a means of specifying the path name for any resource on the internet or an intranet. It consists of three parts:

      • A protocol

      • A host part

      • A document name

    • For example: http://www.cet.ac.nz/smac/ckware.htm specifies the protocol as http, the host or www server as www.cet.ac.nz and the document as /smac/csware.htm.

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    • File Transfer Protocol service (known as FTP in short) enables an Internet user to move a file from one computer to another on the Internet. A file may contain any type of digital information – text document, image, artwork, movie, sound, software, etc.

    • Moving a file from a remote computer to one’s own computer is known as downloading the file, and moving a file from one’s own computer to a remote computer is known as uploading the file.

  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

    • It is a computer language to prepare Web pages. Hypertext is a text with extra features like formatting, images, multimedia and links to other documents.

    • Markup is the process of adding extra symbols to ordinary text. Each symbol which issued in HTML has its own syntax, slang and rules. It is not a programming language.

    • It is markup language. It classifies the parts of a document according to their function. In other words it indicates which part is title, which part is a subheading, which part is the name of the author, and so on.

  • Telnet

    • Telnet service enables an Internet user to log in to another computer on the Internet from his/her local computer. That is, a user can execute the telnet command on his/her local computer to start a login session on a remote computer. This action is also called “remote login.”

    • To start a remote login session, a user types the command telnet and address of the remote computer on his/her local.

    • Computer terminal. The system then asks the user to enter a login name (user ID) and a password. That is; the remote computer authenticates the user to ensure that he/she is authorized to access it. If the specifies a correct login name and password, he/she is logged on to the remote computer. Once login session is established with the remote computer, telnet enters input mode, and anything typed on the terminal of the local computer by the user is sent to the remote computer for processing.

  • The World Wide Web

    The World Wide Web (called WWW or W3 in short) is the most popular and promising method of accessing the Internet. Main reason for its popularity is use of a concept called hypertext. Hypertext is a new way of information storage and retrieval that enables authors to structure information in novel ways. An effectively designed hypertext document can help locate desired type of information rapidly from vast amount of information on the Internet. Hypertext documents enable this by using a series of links.

  • Basics of E-Mail

    • Electronic mail service (known as e-mail in short) enables an Internet user to send a mail (message) to another Internet user in any part of the world in a near-real-time manner.

    • An e-mail message takes a few seconds to several minutes to reach its destination, because it travels from one network to another, until it reaches its destination.

      • Functions of E-Mail

      • Composition of messages

      • Transfer of messages

      • Reporting – What messages have been sent and what cannot be delivered.

      • Displaying

      • Disposition – Delete received messages, save received messages in a folder and keep received messages in user’s mailbox.

  • Basic of Intranet

    • An intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. It may consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in the wide area network. The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees.

    • Today’s working environment often means colleagues are no longer present in the same room at the same time, but separated by large distances. This can make teamwork and face-to-face interaction difficult – unless an intranet with the latest communication and collaboration tools is available

    • Typically, larger enterprises allow users within their intranet to access the public Internet through firewall servers that have the ability to screen messages in both directions so that company security is maintained.

    • Extranet refers to network within an organization, using internet to connect to the outsiders in controlled manner. It helps to connect businesses with their customers and suppliers and therefore allows working in a collaborative manner.

  • Basic of Audio and Video-conferencing

    • When a number of participants of a meeting use telephonic instruments to communicate with each other then it is known as audio conferencing

    • When two or more people use digital platforms communicate and collaborate with each other to achieve a common goal effectively then it is known as a video conferencing mode of communication or a tool of face-to-face conferencing.

    • There are many online tools, incorporating a range of options from free one-to-one audio conferencing all the way to more sophisticated and expensive tools such as Polycom which allow multiple sites with entire classes participating using video and audio.

    • Most Popular Video Conferencing Software

      • Skype

      • Zoom

      • Cisco WebEx.

      • GoToMeeting

      • Web conferencing involves sharing content live over the web between two or more locations. Visual material is usually accompanied by an audio track.

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