Method of Information and Communication for Paper 1 Unit VIII (Information and Communication) as Per New 2021 Syllabus

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) : Elements

Title: Elements of ICT

Complete Postal Material Updated as per New Syllabus

  • ICT encompasses both the internet-enabled sphere as well as the mobile one powered by wireless networks. It also includes antiquated technologies, such as landline telephones, radio and television broadcast -- all of which are still widely used today alongside cutting-edge ICT pieces such as artificial intelligence and robotics.
  • ICT is sometimes used synonymously with IT (for information technology) ; however, ICT is generally used to represent a broader, more comprehensive list of all components related to computer and digital technologies than IT.
  • The list of ICT components is exhaustive, and it continues to grow. Some components, such as computers and telephones, have existed for decades. Others, such as smartphones, digital TVs and robots, are more recent entries.
  • ICT commonly means more than its list of components, though. It also encompasses the application of all those various components. it՚s here that the real potential, power and danger of ICT can be found.
  • There are four basic elements of an ICT network in addition to the computers themselves:
    • Communication devices
    • Networking devices
    • Data transfer media
    • Standards and procedures

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ICT՚s Societal and Economic Impact

  • ICT is leveraged for economic, societal & interpersonal transactions and interactions. ICT has drastically changed how people work, communicate, learn & live. Moreover, ICT continues to revolutionize all parts of the human experience as first computers & now robots do many of the tasks once handled by humans.
  • For example, computers once answered phones and directed calls to the appropriate individuals to respond; now robots not only can answer the calls, but they can often more quickly & efficiently handle callers՚ requests for services.
  • ICT՚s importance to economic development and business growth has been so monumental, in fact, that it՚s credited with ushering in what many have labeled the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
  • ICT also underpins broad shifts in society, as individuals end masse are moving from personal, face-to-face interactions to ones in the digital space. This new era is frequently termed the Digital Age.
  • For all its revolutionary aspects, though, ICT capabilities aren՚t evenly distributed. Simply put, richer countries and richer individuals enjoy more access & thus have a greater ability to seize on the advantages and opportunities powered by ICT.
  • Consider, for example, some findings from the World Bank. In 2016, it stated that more than 75 % of people worldwide have access to a cellphone.
  • However, internet access through either mobile or fixed broadband remains prohibitively expensive in many countries due to a lack of ICT infrastructure.
  • Furthermore, the World Bank estimated that out of the global population of 7.4 billion people, more than 4 billion don՚t have access to the internet. Additionally, it estimated that only 1.1 billion people have access to high-speed internet.
  • In the United States & elsewhere, this discrepancy in access to ICT has created the so-called digital divide.
  • Within the ICT market, the advancement of ICT capabilities has made the development & delivery of various technologies cheaper for ICT vendors & their customers while also providing new market opportunities.
  • For instance, telephone companies that once had to build & maintain miles of telephone lines have shifted to more advanced networking materials & can provide telephone, television and internet services; consumers now enjoy more choices in delivery & price points as a result.

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