Method of Higher Education System for Paper 1 Unit X (Higher Education) as Per New 2021 Syllabus

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Higher Education System

  • The Higher Education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. It represents levels 6,7 and 8 of the 2011 version of the International Standard Classification of Education structure. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.

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Objectives of Higher Education

  • The Education Commission of 1964 - 66 enumerated many objectives of higher education. They are:
  • To seek and cultivate new knowledge, to engage vigorously and fearlessly in the pursuit of truth and to interpret old knowledge and beliefs in the light of new needs and discoveries.
  • To provide the right kind of leadership. To identify gifted youth and help them develop their potential to the full by cultivating physical fitness, developing the powers of the mind and cultivating right interests, attitudes and moral and intellectual values.
  • To provide competent men and women, trained in agriculture, arts, medicine, science and technology and various other professions, who will also be cultivated individuals, imbued with a sense of social purpose.
  • To strive to promote equality and social and cultural differences through diffusion of education and
  • To foster in the teachers and students, and through them in a society generally, the attitudes and values needed for developing the ‘good life’ in individuals and society.
  • ‘The Principle object is to deepen man՚s understanding of the Universe and of himself in body, mind and spirit and to disseminate this understanding throughout society and so apply it in the service of mankind.’
  • ‘A university stands for humanism, for tolerance, for reason, for adventure of ideas and for the search of truth. It stands for the onward march of the human race towards even higher objectives. If the Universities discharge their duties adequately, then it is well with the nation and the people.’

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Development of Higher Education in India

  • Higher education in India has a long history. Earlier there were ‘Gurukuls’ and ‘ashrams’ run by individual scholars corresponding to modern time՚s colleges. The curriculum in these institutes embraced all fields of intellectual activities including subjects as archery and principles of warfare. The earliest university was ‘Takshashilla’ which attained great fame as a university by seventh century B. C. During the beginning of Aryan period, the education imported, was generally confined to the priestly class, and later I spread to two other classes- ‘kshatriyas’ and the ‘vaishas’ . Later came the Buddhist and Jain period which was not based on Vedic study and its teachers were not of priestly class. Some of the monasteries developed into a kind of educational centres. The University of Purushapura (Peswar) , Takshashila, (West Punjab) , Jagaddal (Bihar) , Jayender Vihara (Kashmir) , Kanchi (Madras) , Vallabhi (Saurastra) and other centres were some of the famous places.
  • During Muslim period most of the Universities of Buddhist period had disappeared. They developed their own institutions of Higher education which were known as Madrasahs. When British occupied the country, higher education was more or less dislocated.
  • The East India Company՚s charter of 1698 had directed the company to maintain schools. St. Mary՚s Charity School, was started in Madras in 1715. In 1725, European Christian Missionaries had established seventeen schools for the children of the heretics (Hindus) and Muslims and four missionary schools for the Christian. In 1804, the London Missionary society established English schools in Ceylon, Southern India and Bengal. This was the beginning of western education in India. Establishment of these primary schools led towards the demand for the establishment of institutions for higher education.

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