# Method of Logical Reasoning for Paper 1 Unit VI (Logical Reasoning) as Per New 2021 Syllabus

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## Logical Reasoning: Types of Logical Reasoning

• Deduction is when the conclusion, based on the premises, must be true. For example, if it՚s true that the dog always barks when someone is at the door and it՚s true that there՚s someone at the door, then it must be true that the dog will bark. Of course, the real world is messy and doesn՚t always conform to the strictures of deductive reasoning (there are probably no actual dogs who always bark when someone՚s at the door) , but deductive reasoning is still important in fields like law, engineering, and science, where strict truths still hold. All math is deductive.
• Induction is when the conclusion, based on the premises, is probably the answers are less definitive than they are in deductive reasoning, but they are often more useful. Induction is our only way of predicting what will happen in the future: we look at the way things are, and the way they have been in the past, and we make an educated guess about what will probably happen. But all predictions are based on probability, not certainty: for example, it՚s extremely probable that the sun will rise tomorrow morning. But it՚s not certain, since there are all sorts of catastrophes that could happen in between now and then.

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## Logical Reasoning vs. Critical Thinking

• Logic is one of the main pillars of critical thinking. And there՚s no question that critical thinking would be impossible without some understanding of logical reasoning. However, there are many other skills involved in critical thinking, such as:
• Empathy, or the ability to imagine what someone else is feeling or experiencing. This is a crucial skill for critical thinking, since it allows you to broaden your perspective and reflect on your actions and beliefs. Empathy also makes you a better student of philosophy because it enables you to put yourself in the author՚s shoes and understand the argument from within.
• Analogy, or noticing similarities and thinking them through. Analogies allow us to draw conclusions about, for example, the similarity between our own time and some moment in history, and thus try to make better decisions in the future. This skill is closely related to inductive logic.
• Creativity. Critical thinking is all about innovative problem-solving and coming up with new ideas, so it՚s heavily dependent on creativity. Just like a creative art, critical thinking depends on assembling old parts in new ways, working inventively within constraints, and matching moments of inspiration with hours of rigorous craft.

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