Anumana & Types Structure of Anumana YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Types of Anumana: Purvavat, Sesavat, Kevalanvayi, Kevalavyatireki, Svarthānumāna, Parārthānumāna

Anumana & Types

Structure of Anumana

Structure of Anumana

Hetu is also called linga. Vyapti is the ground of Anumana

Anumana.” It is knowledge (mana) which arises after (Anu) other knowledge.

Vyapti is the Ground of Anumana
  • The presence of the middle term in the minor term is called Paksadharmata and the invariable association of the middle term with the major term is called Vyapti. Knowledge of Paksadharmata as qualified by Vyapti is called Parāmarsa. In addition, Anumana is defined as knowledge arising through Parāmarsa i.e.. the knowledge of the presence of the major in the minor through the middle, which resides in the minor and is invariably associated with the major.
  • Paramsa: The process of inference relates the sadhya or major term to the paksha or minor term. (Vyapti) does this through the relation of the hetu to both the paksha (by pakshadharmata) and the sadhya. Subsumptive reflection is the knowledge of reason (hetu) existing on the paksha together with the knowledge of invariable concomitance (Vyapti) between hetu and sadhya.

Smoke & fire

The middle term (smoke) when appearing on paksha is called linga (sign) while in Vyapti it is called hetu (reason) .

Types of Anumana

Types of Anumana
  • In Svarthānumāna, a man seeks only to reach the conclusion for himself. This is illustrated in the case of a man who infers the existence of fire in a hill because he first perceives a mass of smoke in it and then remembers that there is a universal relation between smoke and fire.
  • In Parārthānumāna, a man having inferred the existence of fire in a hill lays it down as a thesis and proves it as a conclusion following from the major and minor premises and the conclusion into a third premise.
  • Kevalānvayi: An inference is called Kevalānvayi when it is based on a middle term, which is only positively related to the major term. For example,
    • All knowable objects are namable.
    • The Pot is a knowable object.
    • Therefore, The Pot is a namable object.
  • Kevalavyatireki: An inference is kevalavyatireki when it is based on a middle term, which is only negatively related to the major term. It is based on the invariable concomitance between the middle term, which is established by the method of agreement in absence (Vyatireka) since there can be no positive instances of agreement in presence between the terms. For example,
    • No non-soul substance has life.
    • All beings possessing animal functions have life,
    • Therefore, all beings possessing animal functions have soul.
  • Anvaya-Vyatireki: An inference is anvaya-vyatireki when it is based on a middle term, which is both positively and negatively related to the major term. The universal relation (Vyapti) in this inference is established by the method of agreement in presence (anvaya) and agreement in absence (vyātireka) .
    • All Smokey objects are fiery
    • The hill is smoky
    • Therefore, the hill is Fiery.

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