Psychology Most Important Questions with Answers on GRE Psychology Diagnostic Pretest Part 7

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86. In the operant conditioning model, reinforcement appears:

(A) With the onset of the conditioned stimulus.

(B) After the stimulus but before the response.

(C) As the animal begin the response.

(D) After the response is made.

(E) As the avoidance response is elicited.

Answer: D

87. The operant conditioning model in which the organism՚s response is followed by the removal of a noxious stimulus is called:

(A) Release conditioning.

(B) Discriminate reinforcement.

(C) Punishment.

(D) Avoidance conditioning.

(E) Escape conditioning.

Answer: E

88. Chimps learning to operate a machine were rewarded with poker chips. The chips were a:

(A) Primary reinforcer.

(B) Positive reinforcer.

(C) Generalized reinforcer.

(D) Secondary reinforcer.

(E) Higher-order reinforcer.

Answer: D

89. Reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior is called:

(A) Instruction.

(B) Shaping.

(C) Higher-order conditioning.

(D) Chaining.

(E) Transfer.

Answer: B

90. A researcher reported that through electrical stimulation of pleasure centers in the brain he could condition rats to change autonomic function such as heart rate and blood present. This was an unusual finding because:

(A) No one had ever located such precise pleasure centers before.

(B) These functions were not thought to be under voluntary or operant control.

(C) Heart rate and blood present were thought to be fixed from birth and unchangeable except under stress.

(D) For the first time brain centers that control blood pressure were discovered.

(E) Pleasure centers had never previously been found to be associated with heart rate and blood pressure.

Answer: B

91. All of the following are true findings about children raised in institutions where care was minimal except:

(A) They tended to be hyperkinetic.

(B) They tended to show little vocalization.

(C) Their intelligence scores were below normal.

(D) They tended toward autistic behaviors.

(E) They showed little contact with other people.

Answer: A

92. In Piaget՚s model, the stage at which behavior is most determined by reflexes is:

(A) Preoperational.

(B) Concrete operational.

(C) Prelogical.

(D) Precognitive.

(E) Sensorimotor.

Answer: E

93. A mode of thought characteristic of the stage of formal operations is:

(A) Inductive reasoning.

(B) Punning.

(C) Scolding for transgressions.

(D) Collective monologue.

(E) Pre-scientific experimentation.

Answer: A

94. In DSM-IV, fetishism, bondage, exhibitionism, and sado-masochistic sexual expression are:

(A) Considered disguised homosexuality.

(B) Defended as normal sexual expression in most circumstances.

(C) Classified as antisocial personality disorders.

(D) Considered untreatable if their expression is ego-syntonic.

(E) Classified as paraphilias.

Answer: E

95. In Freudian theory, the superego develops:

(A) After attaining the genital stage.

(B) After resolution of the anal stage.

(C) After resolving the Oedipal conflict.

(D) During latency.

(E) Throughout life, especially during the phallic stage.

Answer: C

96. In which society is it considered the obligation of the immediate family to assist the dying in abandoning their ties to this world in order to prepare for the next world?

(A) Muslim.

(B) African animist.

(C) Russian Orthodox.

(D) Hindu.

(E) Jewish.

Answer: D

97. The Brains of schizophrenics show:

(A) Less gray matter in the frontal cortex and displaced cells in the hippocampus.

(B) Less convolution of the cortex and more random electrical activity, as shown on the PET scan.

(C) Dominance of functions of the “old brain” and more brain stem activity.

(D) Marked decrease in endorphin receptors sites and either left or right brain dominance, varying individually.

(E) No significant differences from the brains of non-schizophrenics.

Answer: A

98. The two-factor theory of intelligence is associated with:

(A) Thurstone.

(B) Gardner.

(C) Cattell.

(D) Binet.

(E) Spearman.

Answer: E

99. The primary mental abilities are associated with:

(A) Thurstone.

(B) Eysenck.

(C) Cattell.

(D) Terman.

(E) Wechsler.

Answer: A

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