Competitive Exams Agriculture Study Material: Institutional & Technological Reforms

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  1. Describe the conditions which lead to technological and institutional reforms in India.
    • Agriculture has been in practised in India for thousands of years.
    • Continued uses of land without well-matched techno-institutional reforms lead to slow down in the pace of agricultural development.
    • Inspite of development in irrigation most of the farmers in large parts of the country still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility of soil.
    • Our population grew at fast rate than agriculture production.
    • More than 60 per cent of India՚s population depended on agriculture.
  2. Mention important technological and institutional reforms introduced in India after independence in 1960s and 1970s. After independence following technological and institutional reforms were introduced but all these failed to strengthen our agriculture. These led to the concentration of development in few selected areas.
    • Collective farming was introduced.
    • Land holdings were consolidated
    • Co-operative movement were started in Indian agriculture
    • Zamindari system was abolished, ‘Land reform’ was introduced in First Five Year Plan.
    • The Green Revolution and related technologies were introduced such as use of HYV of seed, fertilizers, modern machinery and inputs.
    • White Revolution (Operation Flood) was introduced to increase milk production.
  3. Explain any four features of comprehensive land development programme initiated during 1980s and 1990s. Comprehensive land development programme included both institutional and technical reforms. Following reforms were introduced:
    • Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease
    • Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
    • Kissan Credit Card (KCC) was introduced for easy availability of inputs.
    • Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
    • Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
    • The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
  4. What is Bhoodan Gramdan movement and Blood less Revolution in the field of agriculture? Vinobha Bhave introduced voluntary redistribution of farm-lands to poor landless farmers for their economic well-being. This act was known as ‘Bhoodan’ Some zamindars, owners of many villages offered to distribute some villages among the landless. It was known as Gramdan. This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement initiated by Vinobha Bhave is also known as the Blood-less Revolution.
  5. Describe the contribution of agriculture to the national economy. Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy.
    • Its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population continues to be as high as 63 per cent in 2001.
    • India is an agriculturally important country.
    • Two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.
    • Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume.
    • Besides food grains, it also produces raw material for various industries.
    • Moreover, some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices, etc. Are also exported.
    • All other sectors of Indian economy heavily depend on agriculture for their growth.
  6. State any four efforts made by the Government of India to modernize our agriculture. Considering the importance of agriculture in India, the Government of India made concerted efforts to modernise agriculture.
    • Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
    • Establishment of Agricultural universities
    • Establishment of Veterinary services and animal breeding centres
    • Initiating Horticulture development
    • Initiating Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast
    • Improving the rural infrastructure.
  7. Explain the challenges facing in Indian agriculture. OR Why the GDP growth in agriculture sector has remained stagnant throughout decades. OR Why the employment in agriculture sector is declining? Give reasons.
    • Indian farmers are facing a big challenges.
    • Our farmer can not face stiff international competition.
    • Our government has reduced investment in agriculture sector particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanisation.
    • Subsidy on fertilisers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
    • Import duty has been reduced on agricultural products which lead to large inflow of foreign agro products in the country.
    • Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the employment in agriculture.
    • Many farmers are committing suicides in several states of the country.
    • Land under agriculture is decreasing.
    • There are no alternative source of livelihood for the farmers.

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    Bombay Stock Exchange's Sensitive Index or 'Sensex' or 'BSE Sensex' is one of the leading benchmark indices in India. It tracks the stock market prices and indicates market sentiments in economy.

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