Mucormycosis: Rare Fungal Infection YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Mucormycosis: Rare Fungal Infection - Covid-19 Types & Fungal Spores

Title: Mucormycosis

  • Mucormycosis or Zygomycosis
    • Rare fungal infection by mucormycetes
    • Live in soil & decaying organic matter
  • Mucormycosis mainly affects people who have health problems or take medicines that lower the body՚s ability to fight germs and sickness. It most commonly affects the sinuses or the lungs after inhaling fungal spores from the air. It can also occur on the skin after a cut, burn, or other type of skin injury.
  • These fungi aren՚t harmful to most people. However, for people who have weakened immune systems, breathing in mucormycete spores can cause an infection in the lungs or sinuses which can spread to other parts of the body.
  • Sample collected by fluid or biopsy
  • Treated with prescription antifungal medicine, usually amphotericin B, Posaconazole, or isavuconazole.
  • Mucormycosis is frequently a life-threatening infection. A review of published Mucormycosis cases found an overall all-cause mortality rate of 54 % . The mortality rate varied depending on underlying patient condition, type of fungus, and body site affected (for example, the mortality rate was 46 % among people with sinus infections, 76 % for pulmonary infections, and 96 % for disseminated Mucormycosis)
  • High blood sugar and low immune function are the strongest risk factors for Mucormycosis. Patients most vulnerable to Mucormycosis are those who have been treated with steroids and other drugs for COVID-19, to reduce inflammation.
  • Steroids can affect blood glucose levels, especially in those who already have diabetes. Its symptoms include facial swelling, pain, numbness, eye swelling, bloody or black- brown discharge from the nose.
  • Patients who have been hospitalized for Covid-19 and particularly those who require oxygen therapy during Covid-19 illness are at a much higher risk of Mucormycosis

Mucormycosis Types

Mucormycosis Types
  • Rhinocerebral (sinus and brain) Mucormycosis is an infection in the sinuses that can spread to the brain. This form of Mucormycosis is most common in people with uncontrolled diabetes and in people who have had a kidney transplant.
  • Pulmonary (lung) Mucormycosis is the most common type of Mucormycosis in people with cancer and in people who have had an organ transplant or a stem cell transplant.
  • Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis is more common among young children than adults, especially premature and low birth weight infants less than 1 month of age, who have had antibiotics, surgery, or medications that lower the body՚s ability to fight germs and sickness.
  • Cutaneous (skin) Mucormycosis: occurs after the fungi enter the body through a break in the skin (for example, after surgery, a burn, or other type of skin trauma) . This is the most common form of Mucormycosis among people who do not have weakened immune systems.
  • Disseminated Mucormycosis occurs when the infection spreads through the bloodstream to affect another part of the body. The infection most commonly affects the brain, but also can affect other organs such as the spleen, heart, and skin.
  • Symptoms of Rhinocerebral (sinus and brain) Mucormycosis include:
    • One-sided facial swelling
    • Headache
    • Nasal or sinus congestion
    • Black lesions on nasal bridge or upper inside of mouth that quickly become more severe
    • Fever
  • Symptoms of pulmonary (lung) Mucormycosis include:
    • Fever
    • Cough
    • Chest pain
    • Shortness of breath
  • Cutaneous (skin) Mucormycosis can look like blisters or ulcers, and the infected area may turn black. Other symptoms include pain, warmth, excessive redness, or swelling around a wound.
  • Symptoms of gastrointestinal Mucormycosis include:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Disseminated Mucormycosis typically occurs in people who are already sick from other medical conditions, so it can be difficult to know which symptoms are related to Mucormycosis. Patients with disseminated infection in the brain can develop mental status changes or coma.

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