Relationships: Mutualism, Neutralism, Parasitism, Commensalism and Competition

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Predation+- (Dies)


Example of a Mutualistic
  • One example of a mutualistic relationship is that of the . Oxpeckers land on rhinos or zebras and eat ticks and other parasites that live on their skin. The oxpeckers get food and the beasts get pest control.
  • Bees and flowers


  • An example of neutralism is interaction between a rainbow trout and dandelion in a mountain valley or cacti and tarantulas living in the desert.
  • Neutralism (a term introduced by Eugene Odum) describes the relationship between two species that interact but do not affect each other.


Examples of Parasites

A few examples of parasites are tapeworms, fleas, and barnacles. Tapeworms are segmented flatworms that attach themselves to the insides of the intestines of animals such as cows, pigs, and humans. They get food by eating the hostีšs partly digested food, depriving the host of nutrients. Fleas harm their hosts, such as dogs, by biting their skin, sucking their blood, and causing them to itch. The fleas, in turn, get food and a warm home. Barnacles on whales, do not seriously harm their hosts, but they do itch and are annoying.


  • Remora fish have a disk on their heads that makes them able to attach to larger animals, such as sharks, mantas, and whales. When the larger animal feeds, the remora detaches itself to eat the extra food.
  • Cattle egrets eat the insects stirred up by cattle when they are grazing. The cattle are unaffected, while the birds gain food.


Amensalism of Tree
  • here are two basic modes: competition in which a larger or stronger organism excludes a smaller or weaker one from living space or deprives it of food, and antibiosis, in which one organism is unaffected but the other is damaged or killed by a chemical secretion.
  • The classic demonstration of antibiosis is the destructive effect that the bread mold Penicillium has upon certain bacteria; the secretion, known as penicillin, has become a potent medicine in combating bacterial infections. Some higher plants secrete substances that inhibit the growth of nearby competing plants. An example is the black walnut which secretes juglone, a substance that destroys many herbaceous plants within its root zone.


  • two wild dogs known as Dholes fight over a carcass. The carcass is a resource, something both organisms need to survive.
  • Predation

โœ Manishika