Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 1

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Transition zone between adjacent biome – Eco tone.

In ecosystem one species Dominates & other excludes = Gause՚s principle

Most productive & Biodiversity = coral reef.

Intertidal zone – Cladophora, Polysiphonia, Dictyota, Ulva, focus.

Carrying capacity – upper asymptote

Chemotaxonomy – used to study plant relationships

Colpidium – indicates degree of pollution in water

Infective stage of taenia solium- cysticercosis

Extinct primitive arthropods – trilobites

Heterothallism – prevent interbreeding

Johnston՚s organ – antenna of mosquito

On gills fertile layer bearing basidia = Hymenium

Ascospore = endogenous

Basidiospore = exogenous

Norin – 10 – Japan – dwarf gene of wheat.

Dee geo woo gen – Taiwan – dwarf gene of rice.

Ordovician period – age of invertebrates ⁄ age of giant Mollusca.

Devonian period – age of fishes.

Carboniferous period – age of amphibians

Jurassic period - age of reptiles

Holocene epoch – age of man

Inheritance of acquired character = Lamarck. (France)

Natural selection = Darwin coworker – Wallace (by Malthus essay on popl)

Survival of fittest – spencer

Neo Darwinism = mutation germplasm DNA natural selection

Ancon sheep – short & curved legs – mutation – in Seth wright farmer in Massachusetts America

Evolution of new species β‡Ύ geographic isolation

Evolutionary divergence β‡Ύ reproductive isolation

People with common gene pool β‡Ύ demes β‡Ύ species

Sympatric Speciation = Reproduction isolation

Allopatric Speciation = Geographical isolation

Dollo Law – evolution irreversible

Copi՚s Law - Evolution size increment

Bergman Law – Warm-blooded animal large in northern & cold regions.

Allen՚s Law – Cold animal have small ears & tails

Gause Law/Competitive exclusive principle – 2 species of same ecological requirement cannot continue to occupy same habitat

Gloger՚s Rule – Warm blooded live in warm & moisture develop more melanin pigment.

Jordan՚s rule – fisher of low temperature (cold atmosphere) – more vertebrae pressure

Hibernation = winter sleep

Aestivation = summer sleep

BGA endospore = bacocyte

PSI – inner surface of thylakoid – P700 – Ferrodoxin

PSII – outer surface of thylakoid – P680 – Granna



Lichens are sensitive to

Burning plastics – polychlorinated Biphenyls

Aldehyde – irritate gastrointestinal & respiration tract

Nitrogen oxide – photochemical & respiration tract

– harden rubber, destroy chlorenchyma

gas at bhopal in union carbide factory manufacturing Sevin phosgene 2 gas

used by ficus verigata, Phaseolus Vulgaris, Coleus Blumeri.

used by Pinus, Juniperus, Quercus, vitis

Putrescibility – decay & decomposition of organic matter due to bacteria.

Laundry detergents contain phosphate

India – biggest sea good exporter

Minamata victims – numbness of limbs, lips, tongue.

Tidal power station = France

Algin = Sargassum & Turbinaria

Non leguminous plant fixing Casaurina, Almus, Hippophae

Texture of soil (1) water holding capacity (2) aeration

Earth is an open system for energy (close for material)

Halophyte – Salsola & triple

Cross primary productivity – Rate of organic matter by producers per unit time & area.

Net primary productivity – rate of organic matter built up in bodies per unit time & area

Secondary productivity – increment in biomass in heterotrophs.

Photosynthesis cyclic – Red – not evolved.

Non-Photosynthesis cyclic – Red/Blue - evolved.

LDH = Lactate dehydrogenase 5 forms isoenzymes (same action difference structure)

Enteric group – facultative aerobic bacteria

E. g. E. coli in water indicates contamination by sewage

Archaebactria – Branched chain lipids.

Taxonomy – identification, to nomenclature & classification of organisms

Copeland – 4 Kingdom Classification.

Whittaker – 5 Kingdom Classification

Amoeboid stage of slime mould = plasmodium devoid of cell wall

Total stem parasite – Cuscuta

Total root parasite – Orobanche

Partial root parasite – Santalum

Partial stem parasite – Loranthus, Viscum

Narcotics – Suppress CNS

Stimulants – increase CNS

Cornea – No Blood supply

CNS Stimulant = Amphetamines

CNS depressant = Barbiturates

Artificial pace maker in right Ventricle

1st open heart surgery – 1953

1st pesticide by man = Rotenone

Sporeine = Bio insecticide

Artificial Kidney = Passive filtration process

World war II = organophosphate Never gas inhibit cholinesterase

Agent orange is ausein derivative used by USA Vietnam

Rotenone – roots of Devris elliptica

Pyrethrum – inflorescence of chrysanthemum cinerariifoliun

Producers = Transducers

Ecosystem = integrated of system of living & nonliving things

Color changes = Metachrosis e. g. Chameleon & Hyla

Proteus arguinus (cave salamander) = eyeless

Sharks & cattle are color – blind.

Light intensity measured by lux meter or photometer

Tanning – synthesis of melanin in chromatophore

LDP = Radish spinach, henbane, sugar beet, oat, baray, wheat

SDP = Xanthium, chrysanthemum, Cannabis, Rice, sugarcane, Soybean

SLDP – wheat nice

LSDP – Bryophyllum

Day neutral = cotton, Tobacco, Potato, maize, cucumber

Daily response of light condition circadian rhythms.

Long day animal – Turkey, starling

Short day animal – sheep, goat, deer

Day neutral animal – guinea pig, ground squirrel

Regulate species of locomotion by light photo kinesis

Nyctinasty – flower of Portulaca & leaves of Albizia

Photonasty – Oxalis.

Thigmonasty – Drosera.

Seismonasty – lead of mimosa pudica

Orientation during locomotion in response β‡Ύ photo taxis

Fecundity = reproductive capacity

Unidirectional trees – flag trees

Shivering – body temp increases

Perspiration/Panting – body temperature decreases

Snails – Calcium content

Insectivores – N2 deficient soil

Fresh water fish – large glomeruli & Expel large amount of hypotonic urine

Marine water fish – gills extract salts from seawater by active transport.

Migration – Bison, Caribou (mammals) , Anguilla, salmon (fish) , Arctic tes, siberion Crane, American golden plover (Birds)

Stenohaline – withstand only freshwater/sea water

euryhaline – withstand difference concentrations of soil & water

Pedogenesis – formation of soil

Actinomycetes β‡Ύ Streptomycin

Group of individuals belonging to a trophic level which consume a common resource base in similar fashion = Guild (nectar feeding, grazing, browsing, frugivorous animals) .

Bioenergetics = Phillip՚s.

Net production = gross production – respiration

Pyramid of energy – upright

Pyramid of no energy – upright [inverted (tree ecosystem) ] .

Hila ilisha (Indian shad) can live in both fresh & marine water

Pyramid of biomass – Aquatic inverted