Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 19

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  • Wheat from India ⇾ Australia
  • Chakraborty՚s super bug – Small population added to oil polluted water maker it pollution free
  • To degrade pollutants
  • OCT (octane, Hexane, decane)
  • XYL (Xylene, toluene)
  • CAM (Camphor)
  • NAH (naphthalene degraded)
  • Somoclonal variation – wheat – rust resistance & high temperature tolerance.
    • Rice – resist tungro virus & leafhopper.
    • Potato – high protein & resist late blight
    • Sugarcane – short harvest duration
    • Tomato – increment shelf life.
  • Cloning – preserves genotype, replace original one, product HGH genes in E. coli
  • Deficiency of aspartic acid leads to diabetes.
  • Arabidiopsis thaliana ⇾ polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) = biodegradable plastic
  • Disease free plants by meristem culture.
  • Third generation pesticide = insect hormone analogues.
  • Quarantine regulation – prevent entry of diseased plant in a country
  • Howard & pelc – cell cycle
  • G1 – synthesis of r RNA, mRNA, ribosomes, structural & functional proteins
  • S – Replication of DNA, histone proteins & chromosome with 2 chromatid.
  • G2 – Cellular synthesis – division of mitochondria & chloroplast ⇾ Kinase Activated (Cause phosphorylation of protein of nuclear brine leading to breakdown to of nuclear envelope) .
  • M – karyokinesis (Shortest) .
  • Cells like neurons, RBC etc. do not divide (Skeletal) Epithelial cells divide rapidly.
  • Point & no return (restriction point or R point occurs) in late G1
  • G0 state – when the cells have being arrested in the G1 phase (late) – undergo differentiation & enter G0 phase
  • Cell need to accumulate a level of protein (U – protein) to pass through R point.
  • Amitosis – (Robert Remak) – in eukaryotic nucleus becomes dumb belled Shaped.
  • Amitosis – prokaryote, protozoan, yeast, fetal cells, Cartilage cells, degenerating diseased cells & old tissues.
  • Mitosis = Indirect division – in cell haploid & polyploidy – educational division
  • Mitosis most preferred – root tip
  • Prophase – plectonemic coiling viscous, refractive, mitotic spindle (bipolar fibrous structure of microtubules) (1) mitotic center, refractive, astral/amphiastral (Animal) . (2) Plant – not centriole mitosis (no asters) . Shortening of chromosomes
  • Mitotic center associated with centrioles – when of animal cell destroyed by laser then too Spindle formation takes place – it ensures the pushing of daughter cells to opposite Poles & equal distribution among themself
  • By late G1 or early S – centrioles duplicate.
  • Late prophase – nuclear envelope break by kinase, kinetochores develop on either surface of centromere, spindle fibers formed by gelation of cytoplasmic & nuclear proteins
  • Metaphase – Across equator – best time to observe chromosome morphology.
  • Anaphase – inter-zonal fiber appear & movement to poles, angular, divergence decreased
  • Telophase – reversal of prophase, nucleolus reappear, chromosome uncoil
  • Karyokinesis is not always follow by cytokinesis – e. g. Fungi, algae, endosperm of tissues
  • Mitosis – maintains genetic stability
  • (positive) Kinetin (6 furfurylaminopurine) – in low conc.
  • (negative) Oxidation (Cyanide, azide)
  • (negative) Oxidative phosphorgation (2,4 dinitrophenol)
  • Cytogenetic = Muller
  • Colchicine act on metaphase & inhibit it – if affect formation of spindle fibers to cause difference degree of blockage of chromosome Division at metaphase & anaphase (2 chromatid not separate & remain united = SKI CONFIGURATION)
  • Dinomitosis – in dinoflogellates, intra nuclear division.
  • Karyochorisis (moore) – intra-nuclear division but spindle formed either by centrioles or small spindle polar bodies (SPB՚s) in fungi.
  • Cancer cells – Continues division, no contact inhibition, divide indefinitely (not show hay flick limit) .
  • Hayflick limit – normal somatic cells do not live forever, after undergoing number of divisions they die.
  • Meiosis – in diploids & polyimides. (nucleus divides twice but chromosome once)
  • Meiosis best part to study = anthers.

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