Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 27

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  • Man՚s intestine – E. Coli – synthesis of V it B bk.
  • Genetic engineering – Escherichia & agrobacterium
  • Selaginella bryopteris = Sanjeevani
  • Pteridophytes – vas cular cryptograms, absence of overle, highly organized sporophyte generation, sporophyte is independent of gametophyte.
  • Pteridophytes simple, uninerved leaves = microphyllous, Cambium is absent.
  • Xylem made of tracheids only & phloem consists of sieve tube only.
  • Azolla = Biofertilizer – water fern
  • Phymia – fossil plants
  • Psilophytales – 1st land vascular plants
  • Salvinia – Aquatic pteridophyte weed.
  • Cyathea & Alsophila – tree fern
  • Protostele – lycopodium, Selagiwella.
  • Alsophila – pteris, Dryptoresis
  • Siphonostele – equiseturm.
  • Heterosporous – selaginella – endosperic diecious.
  • Homosporous – equisetum, lycopodieam, Fteris – exosporic, monoccious
  • Eusporangiate – from superficial cell – lycopodium, selaginella, equiseturn
  • Lepto Eusporangiate – from single initial cell – pteric, Marselia.
  • Sex organ embedded in prothallus – antheridium, uninucleate, biflogellate archegonium – neck & venter
  • Fertilization – H2O essential, chemotactic
  • Gametophyte from sporophyte without meiosis & spore formation – apospery.
  • Sporophyte from gametaphyte without gametes & sexual fusion – Apogamy.
Understanding the Various Ferns, Mosses and Species
Club mossHorse tailFerns
(Glycoside)(spenopsida)(pteropsida)
MicrophyllousHomosporousMacrophyllous (frond)
Hemo + HeteroHomosprousHomospoeous
Sporangiain strobili (cone)SporangiophoreClusters (sori)
True mossesHollow, jointed stemRhizome with green leaves

In air

  • Selaginella – resurrection plant, sporophyte, dichotomously branched, positive geotrop rhizophore develop exogenously polystele of protostele type, trabucuae.
  • Show casparian strips (endodermal) , monoarch with exarch xylen, phloem is horse shoe shaped, 2 layered jacket of micros porangillen.
  • Megasporangiun – 4 layered structure with 2 layered jacket.
  • 13 celled – one prothallial cell + 12 antheridium (8 jacket cell + 4 archagonial cell)
  • Oval biflagellate anthrezoid, multicellular female gametophyte, vivipary is seen
  • Number of cotyledons = 2, meiosis in young sporangia, air space instele due to differential growth rate of outer cortical & inner vascular tissues.
  • If development of Rhizopores permanently suppoerssed – root not produced & water absorption adversely affected.
  • Ferns – damp shady places, Tropical rain, pinnatily compound lead, rachis present, fronds present
  • e – shaped stele
  • Dry brown Scales remote, Leaves uncoiled Like water spring – Circinate furcate (branch dichotomously) . Ferns survive forest fires.
  • Adiantum – vegetable reproduce each sorus covered by indusium (Haploid spores)
  • Siphonostele – Stele with pith.
  • Protostele – Xylen, phloem, pericycle, endodermis & no pith.
  • Ferm – sporangrin consists of multicellular stalk & biconvex capsule.
  • One layered wall & capsule is thin called anmulus (thickening of inner & radial walls)
  • Thin walled region called stomium (mouth) (spore mature, cell of annulus dry & bends back with jerk) .
  • Prothallus – haploid, unicellular rhizoids
  • Prothallus – antheridium - spirally coiled, multiflagellate.
  • Prothallus – archegonium – flask shaped – venter & Acek canal cells. Venter in prothallus & contain single large egg. Cell with female gamete in it.
  • Speres force fern to grown on wet places.
  • Speres grown into photosynthesis pothallus which even susceptible to dessication than bryophyte gametophyte.
  • Bryophytes – vascular tissue absent absent, gametophyte is dominate mosses gametes within multicellular sex organs called as sterile jackets ciliated anthrezcids for used during fertilization (needed water) .
  • Amphitaians of plants kingdom srkashyap – father of Bryology in India western Himalayas – gold mines of liverworts
  • Western Himalayas – gold mines of liverwords

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