Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 5

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  • 2 major factors that cell size are rate of physical diffusion of nutrient & O2 and Regulatory activities of nucleus to maintain nucleo cytoplasmic ratio
  • Bioenergetics – transformation & use of energy by living cells.
  • Centrioles & ribosomes – no membranous organelles.
  • Cu2 + converts to Cu + (in presence of free aldehydes) = Reducing sugar – basis of benedict՚s
  • Resolving power – ability to distinguish to closely related pats as separate pats
  • Resolving power human eye – 10 um.
  • Robert Hooke- cell – mathematician/physicist – micrographia – “Of the Schematsme or texture of cork & cells & Pores of some other such forthy bodies” – separation of cells = diaphragm Robert Brown – nucleus.
  • Cell theory – MJ Schlieden & Theodor Schwann – all living things made of cells, arise from pre-existing cells, fundamentally similar, function as whole unit.
  • Chromosome – primary seen by Hofmeister (pollen mother cell of transdescantia) .
  • Chromosome – term by waldeyer
  • Plant cell – has cell wall, central large, vacuole, absence of centrosome.
  • Mitochondria – primary seen in Nymphaea.
  • Autoplast = Chloroplast.
  • Glucose = D isomer
  • Amino acid = L isomer
  • Rudolf Virchow – cell arise from preexisting cells.
  • Organic compounds have specific shape & dimensions.
  • Non polar substance are immiscible with water = Hydrophobic
  • Monosaccharides – CnH2nOn triose glyceraldehyde & dihydroxyacetone.
  • Erthyose – synthesis of lignin & anthocyanin Pigments.
  • Fructose – fruits = levalose – sweetest
  • Mannitol – alcohol of mannose – brown algae.
  • Agar – 2 = Graciliara (galactose)
  • Glucose + NH2 group = Glucosamine ⇾ chitin
  • Fruit wall high percentages of pectin ripening pectin ⇾ sugar so sweetening occurs.
  • Starch – blue with iodine
  • Glycogen – red violet with iodine
  • Hemicellulose = D xylose – in dates – phoenix
  • Commonest lipid = triglycerides
  • Steroid & terpenes = complex lipids
  • Lignin – polymer of aromatic alcohol – secondary cell wall esp. woody tissues menthol & camphor
  • Fatty substances in cell wall - transipiration & provide protection
  • Diorgenin = antifertility pills – Dioscorea.
  • Infants need histidine
  • Imino group A. A = proline, hydroxyproline
  • Neutral AA = alanine, glycine, valine
  • Neutral AA = alanine, glycine simplest AA, nor-carbon. (contain heme)
    • Tryptophan forms nictotinamide & indole acetic acid
    • Proteins
      • Primary structure – most stable, strong covalent bond, specificity
      • Secondary structure – H2 bonds – – helical (keration) – pleated (silk)
      • Tertiary structure – poly peptide bends & folds as globular – Functional conformation ionic, covalent & H2 bond, S-S covalent bond stable
      • Quaternary structure – H2, ionic & hydrophobic bonds
    • Protein size - less soluble & more heat coagulable
    • 1st class protein – animal
    • 2nd class protein – vegetable (lack essential AA)
    • World՚s most commonest protein = RUBISCO
    • Hordein = Barlley
    • Gliadin/glutenin = wheat
    • Zeatin = maize
    • Orgzanin = Rice
    • Product of Biological origin = odd no. of C.
    • Product of abiological origin = equal odd & even C atoms.
    • Protein quality
      • Digestibility Coefficient = percentage indigested protein absorbed in blood aster.
      • Biological value = percentage of N2 retained from out of N2 absorbed
      • Protein efficiency ratio – gain in wt/protein Consumed.
      • Net protein utilization =

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