Competitive Exams: Revision Terminology Part 53

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Urine

1. Glomerulor filtration – passive

2. Selective reabsorption – active + diffusion

3. Tubular secretion DCT & collecting tube – active only

Glomerular filtrate & plama proteins are similar except it does not have protein & fat.

PCT – active transport – 75 % absorbed (glucose, AA, vitamin C, Ca2 + , K + , Na + ) .

A- = passive

Descending limb of loop of Henle – reabsorbed due to Osmolality – impermeable to ions.

Ascending limb of loop of Henle – Impermeable to water (active second of Na + , K + , Cl-)

High threshold substance – substance which are actively absorbed by blood eg. Glucose.

Non-threshold substance – Creatinine, Hoppuric acid.

Na + Pass out passively.

Fruits – increment acidity.

Vegetable – increment alkalinity

Counter current exchange – Vasa Recta.

Counter current exchange – Loop of Henle.

Angiotensinogen ⇾ Angiotensin ⇾ Stimulate aldestrore to increment reabsorption of Na + in nephrons - Kidney.

Rennin – digestion of milk proteins – stomach.

ADH ➾ Diabets insidipus – urine tasteless, watery & excess.

Medulla Cortex

Cortex Medulla

Nephrology – Kidnegs.

Urology – Urinary tract.

Diucetice - urine – disod. Citrate, glucose, caffien, tea, beverages.

Archinephros – larva of Hagfish.

Pronephros – Cyclostomates, Bony fish, embryo, of fish & amphibian.

Mesonephros – anaminotes – fisher & Amphibians.

Glucose C2H5oH + Co2 alcoholic fermentation

Glucose Lactic acid lactic acid fermentation.

Photosynthesis – anabolic, endergonic, chloroplast.

Respiration – catabolic, Cytoplasma, matrix, exergonic.

Book lung – Scorpion, spider.

Labeo fish – 4 pair of gills.

Book gills – Limulus.

Internal gills – Prawn, unio, pila, fish, tadpole of frog.

Resp region of nasal chamber – pseudostratified columnar epithelium.

False vocal cord – outer, no sound.

True vocal cord – inner, sound prod – greater the tension – higher pitch.

Alveoli – sqvamous epithelium miniature lung.

Pharynx – stratified squamous ep.

Larynx – ciliated columnar ep.

Inspiration – active – diaphragm flat, sternum up & out, Diaphagm & intercosostal mres.

Expiration – passive – diaph ragm conven, sternum down & relax, abdominal & intercosostal mres muscle.

Mammals have negative breathing pr – allow to eat & breath simultarresusly.

Gas diffuses high ⇾ Low conc.

RQ =

Oxygen -3 % plasma and 97 % oxyhaemoglobin.

CO2 - 7 % dissolved gas and 70 % Bicarbonate

23 % Hb & plasma protein

High Po2 & low Pco2 take oxygen in lungs.

High tension of oxygen favour formation of oxyhaemoglobin for muscle hyper – bood.

Inspection Center – M. D dorsal.

Expression Center – mo. ventral + vague.

Pneumotaxic Center – pone varoli dorsal

Laryngitis – disturb vibration of vocal cord & speaking.

Co2, pH ⇾ acidisis.

Decompressor sickness = Bends = Caison disease = Diver paralysis ➾ N2 in seq. water.

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