SDLC Prototypes Model: Introduction of What is SDLC and SDLC Phases

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Topics

SDLC Prototypes Model Topics

Introduction of What is SDLC

  • A System is one in which work is done together to achieve an objective.
  • The full name of SDLC is system development life cycle of an information system.
  • Database design is a fundamental component of SDLC.
  • The process that takes place in any system is called System development life cycle.
  • The SDLC has different steps according to which a system or software is made.

SDLC Phases

SDLC Phases

What is Prototype Model

  • A prototype is built before the development of actual software if there is not complete information about the requirements associated with the input and output of a system.
  • It is very important to satisfy the client before developing the software.
  • Therefore, it is necessary to create a prototype model before the final development of a software because the developer does not have the information related to the system requirements properly.
  • The prototype model is developed to overcome the shortcoming of the waterfall model.

Phases in Prototype Model

Phases in Prototype Model

Requirements Gathering

  • In the first phase of the prototype model, information about all the essential needs is taken.
  • The beginning of making any prototype model starts with the analysis of requirements and the requirement of the system.
  • Full details are taken from the user to know all the features of system

Quick Design

  • A preliminary design is created for the system when the requirement is known.
  • It is a quick design and include the elements required for the system, the quick design helps to develop the prototype for the system.

Built Prototype

  • In this phase, initial prototype is developed based on all the information received from quick design.
  • It gives working model and user interface for the system requirement.

Customer Evaluation

  • When the prototype is created, it is presented to the user and provides feedback to the user about what is to be added or removed by developing this prototype and using the evaluation made by the user, makes the system even better.
  • Work is done in making all possible changes and decorations.

Review & Updation

  • Once the client evaluates the system to see if it is according to its need and changes to the based on its suggestions,
  • If the user is not satisfied with the prototype then a new prototype is created and the process will continue until the client is satisfied.

Development

  • Actual software developed based on the final prototype when all the needs are fulfilling and the client is satisfied.
  • In this face coding is done and the software is divided into small modules

Testing

In the stage, the entire process is tested to see if there is any fault in the system and it is according to the client՚s requirements.

Maintenance

  • This is the last phase of the model in which the complete system is develop and delivered to the client after the all the testing is done.
  • Regular maintenance is continued to prevent error and failures and reduce downtime.

Types of Prototyping Models

Four types of Prototyping models are:

  • Rapid Throwaway prototypes
  • Evolutionary prototype
  • Incremental prototype
  • Extreme prototype

Rapid Throwaway Prototyping

  • This technique is useful to meet the requirement of the client and discover new ideas.
  • This involves repeated prototypes until the client is satisfied.
  • Rapidly new prototypes are made and the first is throwaway.
  • This way a developed prototype is discarded that is not a part of the accepted prototype.

Evolutionary Prototype

  • In this method, the prototype developed initially is incrementally refined on the basis of customer feedback till it finally gets accepted.
  • In comparison to Rapid Throwaway Prototyping, it offers a better approach which saves time as well as effort.
  • That՚s is because it becomes frustrating for the developer to repeatedly create a new prototype from scratch for every interaction of the process.

Incremental Prototype

  • It acts as a building block from which any new component is added or integrated according to the overall design.
  • In this type of incremental Prototyping, the final expected product is broken into different small pieces of prototypes and being developed individually.
  • In the end, when all individual pieces are properly developed, then the different prototypes are collectively merged into a single final product in their predefined order.
  • The biggest advantage of this approach is that the end user gets an opportunity to test the functionality of the developed component.

Extreme Prototype

This method is mainly used for web development domain. It is consisting of three sequential phases:

  • In 1st phase, a basic prototype with all the existing static pages is presented in the HTML format.
  • In the 2nd phase, Functional screens are made with a simulate data process using a prototype services layer.
  • In the last phase, where all the services are implemented and associated with the final prototype.

Advantage of Prototype Model

  • It can actively involve client in the development phase.
  • flexible in design
  • Errors can be detected much earlier.
  • Easy to find missing functionality.
  • User and developers both understand the system better.
  • Quicker user feedback is available leading to better solutions.
  • Client get result quickly
  • The good thing about this model is that this prototype model can also be used with other models and can be used alone. This model differs slightly from the rest for the waterfall model and spiral model.

Disadvantage of Prototype Model

  • This process continues until the user is satisfied, so it is very time consuming.
  • Its biggest disadvantage is poor documentation due to changing the customer needs.
  • More costly
  • Customers sometimes demand the actual product to be delivered soon after seeing an early prototype.
  • Number of iterations.
  • There may increase the complexity of the system.

Summary

A prototype model is a system development method in which prototypes of a software are created that are modified until a final software is developed.

MCQ

Q1. Which one of the following is not a phase of Prototyping Model?

(1) Quick design

(2) Information gathering

(3) Review & Updation

(4) Coding

Answer: (4) Coding

Q2. Which one of the following is a type of Prototyping Model?

(1) Rapid Throwaway

(2) low-level design

(3) V-shaped

(4) Built prototype

Answer: (1) Rapid Throwaway

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