Competitive Exams: Himalayan Region

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The Himalayas and other high mountains Muztagh, Ata, Aghil and KWllun mountains to the north of Kashmir and Zaskar mountains to the east of Himachal Pradesh and north of Uttar Pradesh form India՚s northern boundary, except in the Nepal region. India is adjoined in the north by China, Nepal and Bhutan. A series of mountain ranges in the east separate India from Burma. In the east, lies Bangladesh bounded by the Indian States of West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

In the north-east. Afghanistan and Pakistan border on India. South of the Tropic of Cancer, it tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea on the West and the Bay of Bengal on the cast. The Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea are parts of the territory of India. The Mainland It comprises four well-defined regions, namely, the great mountain zone, the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the desert region and the Southern Peninsula Plateau.

The Himalayan Range: The Himalayas radiating towards the east from the mountain junction in the north-west of India called Pamir Knot comprise three almost parallel ranges. The length of Himalayan range is about 2500 km from west to east with its width varying between 250 km and 300 km. Himaiayan range has the distinction of having within it, the world՚s highest mountain peaks. The highest peaks are: Mount Everest Mt. K. 2 (Godwin Austin) Kanchanjunga 8,848 metres 8,611 metres 8,598 metres Makalu Dhaulagiri 8,481 metres 8,172 metres The Indo Gangetic Plains is about 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad are formed by the basins of three distinct river systems-the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. They are one of the world՚s greatest stretches of flat alluvium and also one of the most densly populated area 011 earth. There is hardly any variation in relief. Between the Yamuna river in Delhi and the Bay of Bengal nearly 1600 km away, there is a drop of only 200 metres in elevation. The Desert Region: It can be divided into two parts-the Great Desert and the Little Desert.

The Great Desert extends from the edge of the Rann of Kutch beyond the Luni river northward. The whole of Rajasthan upto Sind frontier runs through this. The Little Desert extends from the Luni river between Jaislamer and Jodhpur up to the northern wastelands. Between the great and the little desert lies a zone of less absolutely sterile country, consisting of rocky land cut up by limestone ridges. Due to absence of surface water and very scanty rainfall the region is almost absolutely sterile. The Southern Peninsular Plateau is marked off from the Indo-Gangetic plains, by a mass of mountain and hill ranges varying from 460 to 1220 metres in height. Prominent among these are the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura, Malikala and Ajanta. The Peninsula is flanked on one side by the Eastern Ghats, where the average elevation is about 610 metres, and other by the Western Ghats, there it is generally from 91 5 to 220 metres, rising 10 places to over 2440 metres. Between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip. a broader coastal area. The Southern point of the plateau is formed by the Nilgiri Hills ′ where the Eastern and Western Ghats meet. The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats.

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