FERA FEMA, Population Policy 2000 and National Socio-Demographic Goals for 2010

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Fera Fema
Violation of FERA was a criminal offence.Violation of FEMA is a civil wrong.
Offences under FERA were not compoundable.Offences under FEMA are compoundable.
Penalty was 5 times the amount involved.Penalty is 3 times the sum involved.
Citizenship was a criterion to determine residential status of a person under FERA.Stay in India for more than 182 days is the criteria to decide residential status.
There was only one Appellate Authority namely Foreign Exchange Regulation Appellate Board.There are two appellate authorities namely

Special Director (Appeals) and

Appellate Tribunal for Foreign Exchange.

  • Fiscal Responsibility & Budget Management (FRBM) Act 2003
  • The revenue deficit as a ratio of GDP should be brought down by 0.5 per cent every year and eliminated by 2007 - 08.
  • The fiscal deficit as a ratio of GDP should be reduced by 0.3 per cent every year and brought down to 3 per cent by 2007 - 08.
  • The total liabilities of the Union Government should not rise by more than 9 per cent a year.
  • The Union Government shall not give guarantee to loans raised by PSUs and State governments for more than 0.5 per cent of GDP in the aggregate.

Population Policy 2000

The immediate objective of the NPP 2000 is to address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel, and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care. To bring the 1FR to replacement levels by 2010. Stable population by 2045 at a level consistent with sustainable economic growth.

National Socio-Demographic Goals for 2010

  • Address the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supplies and infrastructure.
  • Make school education up to age 14 free and compulsory, and reduce dropouts at primary and
  • Secondary school levels to below 20 percent for both boys and girls.
  • Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
  • Reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000 live births.
  • Achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
  • Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.
  • Achieve 80 percent institutional deliveries and 100 percent deliveries by trained persons.
  • Achieve universal access to information/counseling, and services for fertility regulation and contraception with a wide basket of choices.
  • Achieve 100 per cent registration of births, deaths, marriage and pregnancy.
  • Contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and promote greater integration between the management of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and the National AIDS Control Organization.
  • Prevent and control communicable diseases.
  • Integrate Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) in the provision of reproductive and child health services, and in reaching out to households.
  • Promote vigorously the small family norm to achieve replacement levels of 1FR.
  • Bring about convergence in implementation of related social sector programs so that family welfare becomes a people centered programme.

Selected Terms

Selected Terms
Revenue DeficitDifference between revenue expenditure & revenue receipts
Budget DeficitDifference between total expenditure & revenue receipts
Fiscal DeficitBullet deficit plus non-debt creating; capital receipts
Primary DeficitFiscal deficit- Interest Payments.
FIPBForeign Investment Promotion Council
MIGAMultilateral Investment Guarantee All agency