Urban Development Issues and Challenges Economics YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Urban Development Issues and Challenges

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  • Urbanisation is when places develop due to concentration of small-medium and Heavy industries, Banking and other financial institutions, Institutes of higher studies etc.
  • Migration takes place and the factors responsible are push (lack of jobs, lack of education etc.) and pull factors (Availability of jobs, better healthcare facilities etc.)
  • It leads to change in population density of places within the country.

Key Challenges/Problems

  • Housing/Development of slum: A vast majority of urban population lives in congested and small houses with little facilities. Further, with rapid growth of population and income the cost of housing has risen which has led to huge spike in costs. Thus, many people live in rented accommodation in urban areas.
    • Poor people live in slum which are in the outskirts of cities due to shortage of affordable houses.
    • Further, Poor access to micro finance and mortgage finance limit the ability of low income groups to buy or improve their homes.
  • Planning: Many urban governments lack a modern planning framework and it has led to unplanned expansion of cities, narrow roads, traffic congestion etc.
    • Rigid master plans and restrictive zoning regulations has limited the land available for building. Also, the local governments are not able to generate enough revenues for maintenance of existing infrastructure.
    • Also, there is lack of human resource for undertaking planning on full scale at both states and National Level.
  • Sanitation: There poor sanitation condition in urban areas and particularly in slums and unauthorized colonies. The drainage systems are not properly managed which results in blockage of waste water.
    • Secondly, unsafe garbage disposal is one of the critical problem in urban areas and garbage management always remained a major challenge. Due to lack of space, in the outskirts, the garbage՚s are disposed in open which creates further problems. Resource crunch faced by the municipalities and local bodies have led to very few cities in India having Proper sewerage system with STP.
  • Availability of Water: As per Zakaria Committee recommendation, the water requirement per head per day is 204 litres for cities with population between 5 lakh – 2 million and 272 litres for cities with population more than 2 million.
    • The safe drinking water is not available because all the major sources of water are contaminated. In most of the cities, sewer lines and water lines are laid in close proximity and any leakage in sewer lines makes water contaminated.
  • Problem of Urban Pollution: The deteriorating urban environment is taking a toll on the people՚s health and productivity and diminishing their quality of life. Unplanned growth and rapid expansion leads to diversion of agricultural and forest land for commercial purpose leading to severe biological diversity lost and environmental degradation.
    • E. g. In Delhi and Bengaluru, people are more prone to allergies and respiratory problems. In Delhi, Pollution in winter has led to closure of schools and colleges.


Q 1. Which among the following is not a cause of the growth of cities –

A. Trade & commerce

B. Industrialism

C. Development of transport

D. Hygienic outlook of people

Answer: D

Q 2. Which of the following refers to number of people in an urban area per sq. km.

A. citification

B. Urban population

C. urban density

D. Urbanism

Answer: C


0: 00 Urban Development: Issues and challenges

0: 20 Urban Development

2: 18 Key challenges/problems of Urban Development

11: 00 MCQ about Urban Development: Issues and challenges

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