World Trade Organisation (WTO) : Governance: Trade Policy Review Board

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Governance: World Trade Organisation

Structure of WTO

Ministerial Conference

  • Topmost decision making body of WTO. Meets every 2 years.
  • It take decisions on all matters under any of the multilateral trade agreements.
  • The first Ministerial Conference (i.e.. MC1) was held in Singapore in 1996.

General Council

highest-level decision-making body located in Geneva, meeting regularly to carry out the functions of the WTO.

It is acts on behalf of Ministerial Conference:

  • The Council for Trade in Goods.
  • The Council for Trade in Services.
  • The Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Trade related Investment measures.

Trade Policy Review Board

  • It undertake trade policy reviews of Members under the TPRM.
  • It considers the Director-General՚s regular reports on trade policy development.
  • It examines the trade policies of the country, macroeconomic outlook etc.

For e. g. : Trade policy review of India, Pakistan.

The review cycles are 3,5 and 7 Years.

Trade Policy Review Board

Dispute Settlement Body (DSU)

  • Deals with disputes between WTO members. Provides a platform.
  • Establish dispute settlement panels,
  • Refer matters to arbitration,
  • Adopt panel, Appellate Body and arbitration reports,
  • Maintain surveillance over the implementation of recommendations and rulings contained in such reports,
  • Authorize suspension of concessions in the event of non-compliance with those recommendations and rulings.

Appellate Body

  • It is standing body of seven persons that hears appeals from reports issued by panels in disputes brought by WTO Members.
  • It has the power to uphold, modify or reverse the legal findings and conclusions of a panel.
  • But the decision taken is binding.

Practice Questions

Q 1 Which of the following body is not related to the WTO?

(a) Dispute Settlement Body

(b) Trade Policy Review Body

(c) Council of trade in goods

(d) Exchange Rate Management Body

Ans: (d)

Q2 Who is the current Director-General of WTO?

(a) Pascal Lamy

(b) Mahmoud Riad

(c) Chedli Klibi

(d) Roberto Azevedo

Ans: (d)

Q 3 TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) agreement is administered by:

(A) World Bank (WB)

(B) United Nations Organization (UNO)

(C) World Trade Organization (WTO)

(D) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Ans: (C)

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