Bloom՚s Taxonomy: Learning Outcomes: Six Cognitive Levels and Levels of Learning

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Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes
  • A learning outcome is a clear statement of what a learner is expected to be able to do, know about and/or value at the completion of a unit of study, and how well they should be expected to achieve those outcomes. It states both the substance of learning and how its attainment is to be demonstrated.
  • Bloom՚s Taxonomy is a classification of the different objectives and skills that educators set for their students (learning objectives) . The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago. The terminology has been recently updated to include the following six levels of learning.
  • The value of effective learning outcomes statements An effective set of learning outcomes statements informs and guides both you and your students:
  • For teaching staff: It informs: the content of teaching , the teaching strategies you will use , the sorts of learning activities/tasks you set for your students , appropriate assessment tasks , course evaluation.
  • For students: The set of learning outcomes provides them with a solid framework to guide their studies and assist them to prepare for their assessment , a point of articulation with graduate attributes at course and/or university (i.e.. generic) level.
  • From this, effective learning outcomes statements should: identify important learning requirements (the ‘content’ of learning – the range and type of knowledge, skills and values required) , use clear language, understandable by students and other potential clients , link to the generic and/or course graduate attributes , be achievable and assessable, and , relate to explicit statements of achievement (e. g. level of understanding required) .

Bloom՚s Taxonomy

Bloom՚s Taxonomy
  • Before you can understand a concept, you must remember it.
  • To apply a concept, you must first understand it.
  • In order to evaluate a process, you must have analyzed it.
  • To create an accurate conclusion, you must have completed a thorough evaluation.
  • Create – combine part for whole, Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. (design, formulate, build, invent, create, compose, generate, derive, modify, develop.)
  • Evaluate – judge value of information and ideas, Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. (choose, support, relate, determine, defend, judge, grade, compare, contrast, argue, justify, support, convince, select, evaluate.)
  • Analyze – breakdown information in components, Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing. (classify, break down, categorize, analyze, diagram, illustrate, criticize, simplify, associate.)
  • Apply – apply facts, rules, concepts and ideas, Carrying out or using a procedure for executing, or implementing. (calculate, predict, apply, solve, illustrate, use, demonstrate, determine, model, perform, present.)
  • Understand - what it means, Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. (describe, explain, paraphrase, restate, give original examples of, summarize, contrast, interpret, discuss.)
  • Remember – recognize and recall facts, Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory. (list, recite, outline, define, name, match, quote, recall, identify, label, recognize.)