Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation – Changes (Formative Summative Assessments, 4 Paradigms – Traditional; Enriching & Empowering Schools)

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Title: Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation

Historical view of various Recommendations and reports: Various Commissions and Committees have felt the need for examination reforms.

  • The Hunter Commission (1882)
  • Calcutta University Commission or Sadler Commission (1917 - 1919)
  • Hartog Committee Report (1929)
  • The Report of Central Advisory Board or Sargeant Plan (1944)
  • Secondary Education Commission or Mudaliar Commission (1952 - 53)
Historical View of Various Recommendations and Reports
ReportRecommendations
The Kothari Commission report (1966)‘On the completion of the course, at the end of the lower or higher secondary stage, the student should receive a certificate from the school also giving the record of his internal assessment as contained in his cumulative record. This certificate may be attached to that given by the Board in connection with the external examination …’
National Policy on Education (1986)Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation that incorporates both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of evaluation, spread over the total span of instructional time” .
Report on the Committee for Review of NPE (1986)“Continuous comprehensive internal evaluation and suggests safeguards against abuse of this evaluation system” .
Report on the CABE Committee on Policy‘Continuous and comprehensive internal evaluation of the scholastic and non-scholastic achievement of the students’ .
Report of the National Advisory Committee (1993)“Learning without Burden”
National Curriculum Framework, 2005“Indeed, boards should consider, as a long-term measure, making the Class X examination optional
Position Paper on ‘Examination Reforms’ by NCERT 2006 Indeed, it is our view that the tenth grade exam be made optional forthwith.

Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

Meaning: CCE refers to a system of school based evaluation of a student that covers all aspects of a student development.

  • Developmental process of student emphasizes on two fold objectives: Continuity in evaluation and assessment of broad based learning and behavioural outcomes on the other.
  • Term ‘continuous’ means to emphasise that evaluation of identified aspects of students ‘growth and development’ is a continuous process rather than an event.
  • Term ′ comprehensive ′ means that the scheme attempts to cover both scholastic and co-scholastic aspects of the student ′ s growth and development.
  • Aims at assessing a learner՚s development in areas of learning, like:
    • Knowledge
    • Understanding
    • Applying
    • Analyzing
    • Evaluating
    • Creating

Objectives

  • To help develop cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills.
  • To lay emphasis on thought process and de-emphasize memorization.
  • To make evaluation an integral part of teaching-learning process.
  • To make the process of teaching and learning a learner-centered activity.
  • To use evaluation as a quality control device to maintain desired standard of performance.
  • To use evaluation for improvement of students achievement and teaching-learning strategies on the basis of regular diagnosis.
  • To determine social utility, desirability or effectiveness of programme.
  • To take appropriate decisions about learner, process of learning and learning environment.

Features

  • ‘Continuous’ aspect takes care of ‘continual’ and ‘periodicity’ aspect of evaluation.
  • Continual: Placement evaluation and formative evaluation done informally using multiple techniques of evaluation.
  • Periodicity: Assessment of performance done frequently at the end of unit/term (summative evaluation) .
  • ‘Comprehensive’ component: Takes care of assessment of all round development of the child՚s personality.
  • Assessment in Scholastic as well as Co-Scholastic aspect of the pupil՚s growth.

Functions

  • Helps teacher to organize effective teaching strategies.
  • Continuous evaluation:
    • Helps in regular assessment
    • Serves to diagnose weaknesses
    • Permits teacher to ascertain an individual learner՚s strengths and weaknesses and her needs.
    • Provides immediate feedback to the teacher.
    • Children can know their strengths and weaknesses.
    • Provides the child a realistic self-assessment of how he/she studies.
    • Helps learner to determine areas of instruction in where more emphasis is required.
  • Continuous and comprehensive evaluation identifies areas of aptitude and interest.
  • Helps in making decisions for future, regarding choice of subjects, courses and careers.
  • Provides information/reports on the progress of students in Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas.
  • Helps in predicting future success of the learner.

Types of Assessment

Formative Assessment

  • It is a tool used by teacher to continuously monitor student progress in a non-threatening, supportive environment.
  • Involves:
    • Regular descriptive feedback
    • A chance for the student to reflect on the performance
    • Take advice and improve upon it.
  • Designing criteria to assessing self or peers.
  • Improve student performance extremely while raising the self-esteem of the child and reducing the work load of the teacher.
Features
  • Is diagnostic and remedial
  • Makes provision for effective feedback
  • Provides platform for the active involvement of students in their own learning.
  • Enables teachers to adjust teaching to take account of the results of assessment.
  • Recognizes profound influence assessment on motivation and self-esteem of students.
  • Recognizes need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve.
  • Builds on student՚s prior knowledge and experience in designing what is taught.
  • Incorporates varied learning styles to decide how and what to teach.
  • Encourages students to understand the criteria that will be used to judge their work.
  • Offers an opportunity to students to improve their work after they get feedback.
  • Helps students to support their peer group and vice-versa.

Summative Assessment

  • It is carried out at the end of a course of learning.
  • It measures or ‘sums-up’ how much a student has learned from the course.
  • It is usually a graded test, i.e.. , Marked according to a scale or set of grades.
  • Predominantly of summative nature will not by itself be able to yield a valid measure of the growth and development of the student.
  • Encouraging unhealthy competition.
  • Overemphasis on Summative Assessment system also produces enormous stress and anxiety among learners.
Features
  • Assessment of learning
  • Demonstrate the “sum” of what they have or have not learned
  • Most traditional way of evaluating student work.

Scholastic and Co-Scholastic Assessment

In order to have Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects need to be given due recognition.

Scholastic Assessment

  • Includes curricular areas or subject specific areas.
  • Assessment done informally and formally using multiple techniques of evaluation continually and periodically.
  • Diagnostic evaluation takes place at the end of unit/term test.
Objective
  • Desirable behaviour related to the learner՚s
  • To improve the teaching learning process.
  • Assessment should be both Formative and Summative
Scholastic Assessment

Co-Scholastic Assessment

  • Desirable behaviour related to learner՚s life Skills, Co-Curricular Activities, Attitudes, interest, physical health and Values.
  • Assessment done using multiple techniques on the basis of identified criteria.
  • Assessment in Life Skills is done on the basis of Indicators of Assessment and Checklists.
Co-Scholastic Assessment

School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation

School based CCE Established to

  • Reduce stress on children.
  • Make evaluation comprehensive and regular.
  • Provide space for the teacher for creative teaching.
  • Provide a tool of diagnosis and remedial action.
  • Produce learners with greater skills.

Aims

  • Elimination of chance element and subjectivity and de-emphasis on memorization.
  • Continuous evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional time.
  • Functional and meaningful declaration of results for effective use by teachers, students, parents and society.
  • Wider uses of test result.
  • Improvement in the mechanics of conducting examinations for realizing a number of other allied purpose.
  • Introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and methodology.
  • Introduction of the semester system.
  • Use of grades in place of marks in determining and declaring the level of pupil performance and proficiency.

Characteristics

  • Is broader, more comprehensive and continuous than traditional system.
  • Aims to help learners for systematic learning and development.
  • Takes care of the needs of the learner as responsible citizens of the future.
  • Is more transparent, futuristic and provides more scope for association among learners, teachers and parent.
  • There is a paradigm shift in the pedagogy and competencies from ‘controlling’ to ‘enriching’ to ‘empowering’ schools.
Characteristics

Four Assessment Paradigms

  • Assessment of learning: Defined as a process whereby someone attempts to describe and quantify the knowledge, attitudes or skills possessed by another.
    • Teacher designs learning
    • Teacher collects evidence
    • Teacher judges what has been learnt (and what has not been learnt)
  • Assessment for learning: Involves increased level of student autonomy, but not without teacher guidance and collaboration.
    • Teacher designs learning
    • Teacher designs assessment with feedback to student
    • Teacher judges what has been learnt (student develops insight into what has not)
  • Assessment as learning: It generates opportunities for self-assessment and peer assessment.
    • Teacher and student co-construct learning
    • Teacher and student co-construct assessment
    • Teacher and student co-construct learning progress map
  • Assessment in learning: It places the question at the centre of teaching and learning.
    • Student as the centre of learning
    • Student monitors, assesses and reflects on learning
    • Student initiates demonstration of learning (to self and others)
    • Teacher as coach and mentor

Developed by: