Commission and Departments of National Education Policy and New Education Policy, 2019

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  • The University Education Commission was appointed by the government of India in 1948 to look into the problems of University Education.

  • The Commission was appointed to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements.

  • The Terms of reference were directed for the improvement and re-organization of the University Education.

  • The commission made a thorough study of the problems of Higher Education in India.

Objectives

  • To produce able citizens who can take up national responsibilities successfully in various fields.

  • To maintain a high standard in general, professional and vocational education by inspiring the students to search for a new knowledge.

  • To develop the spirit of universal brotherhood and internationalism in the students.

  • To develop proper understanding of the present as well as of the past.

  • To organize the universities as centres of civilization to train intellectual pioneers of civilization.

Draft New Education Policy 2019

  • The Draft New Education Policy report summary was submitted on May 31, 2019 under the Chairmanship of Dr. K. Kasturirangan, the committee being constituted by the Ministry of Human Resource Development in June 2017.

  • The report submitted proposed to address the challenges of access, equity, quality, affordability, accountability faced by the current education system.

  • The Draft New Education Policy proposed reformations at all levels of education from school to higher education.

Draft New Education Policy 2019

Draft New Education Policy 2019

Aims

  • To increase the focus on early childhood care, reform the current exam system, strengthen teacher training, and restructure the education regulatory framework.

  • To set up a National Education Commission, increase public investment in education, strengthen the use of technology.

  • To increase focus on vocational and adult education.

The Right to Education Act, 2009 (RTE Act)

  • To extend the ambit of the RTE Act to include early childhood education and secondary school education this would extend the coverage of the Act to all children between the ages of three to 18 years.

  • The new education policy also recommends that the recent amendments to the RTE Act on continuous and comprehensive evaluation and the no detention policy must be reviewed.

  • There should not be any detention of children of class 8.

Recommendations of Draft New Education Policy, 2019 Overview

School Education

Early Childhood Care and Education

  • Curriculum that doesn’t meet the developmental needs of children.

  • Lack of qualified and trained teachers.

  • Substandard pedagogy.

  • The Draft New Education Policy consists of guidelines for up to three-year-old children (for parents and teachers) and educational framework for three to eight-year-old children which would be implemented by improving and expanding the anganwadi system and co-locating anganwadis with primary schools.

Curriculum Framework

  • This means restructure based on the development needs of the students.

  • This would consist of a 5-3-3-4 design comprising five years of foundational stage (three years of pre-primary school and classes one and two), three years of preparatory stage (classes three to five), three years of middle stage (classes six to eight) and four years of secondary stage (classes nine to 12).

  • The curriculum load in each subject should be reduced to its essential core content which in turn would make space for holistic, discussion and analysis-based learning.

School Exam Reforms

  • Proposal of State Census Examinations in classes three, five and eight.

  • To restructure the board examinations to test only core concepts, skills and higher order capacities.

  • To replace in-school final examinations by the board examinations.

School Infrastructure

  • Need of Multiple public schools should be brought together to form a school complex.

  • Each complex should consist of one secondary school (classes nine to twelve) and all the public schools in its neighborhood that offers education from pre-primary till class eight.

  • Inclusion of Anganwadi, vocational education facilities, and an adult education centre.

  • Each and every school should become a semi-autonomous unit providing integrated education across all stages from early childhood to secondary education.

Regulation of Schools

  • To separate the regulation of schools from aspects such as policymaking, school operations, and academic development.

  • To create an independent State School Regulatory Authority for each state that will prescribe basic uniform standards for public and private schools.

  • The Department of Higher Education of the State will be the responsible authority as far as formulation of policies and conduct monitoring, supervision are concerned.

Higher Education

Gross comparison across countries (2014)

Gross Comparison Across Countries (2014)
Gross comparison across countries (2014)

Countries

Primary (Class 1-5)

Upper Primary (Class 6-8)

Upper Secondary (Class 9-12)

Higher Education

India

101.4

89.3

62.5

23

China

103.9

100.4

88.8

39.4

USA

99.5

101.9

93.2

86.7

Germany

103.3

101.6

104.6

65.5

Regulatory Structure and Accreditation

  • The Committee proposed to setup the National Higher Education Regulatory Authority (NHERA) to replace the existing individual regulators in higher education, including professional and vocational education.

  • The University Grants Commission (UGC)’s role shall be limited to providing grants to higher educational institutions.

  • The Draft Committee also recommended to separating NAAC from the UGC into an independent and autonomous body. NAAC will work as the top level accreditor, and will issue licenses to different accreditation institutions who will assess higher educational institutions once every five to seven years. By 2030 all the existing higher education institutions should be accredited.

Establishment of New Higher Educational Institutions

  • The higher educational institutions could be allowed to be set up through a Higher Education Institution Charter from NHERA.

  • Within five years of establishment all the newly constituted higher educational institutions must receive accreditation as mandated by NHERA.

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