Educational Technology Introduction Education YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Title: Educational Technology

  • Educational technology is a term used to describe a wide array of teaching and learning-related software and hardware that՚s more and more being used in college and university classrooms.
  • The ultimate goal of educational technology is to enable an improved learning environment, which is a circle, meant to boost student outcomes. It has also been proven to increase student work and participation in class.

Definition of Educational Technology

  • The association for educational communications and technology (AECT) defined educational technology as “the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological process and resources.”
  • According to the encyclopedia of education technology – “educational technology is a systematic, iterative, process for designing instruction for training, used to improve performance.”

Types of Educational Technology

Three Types of Educational Technology

Hardware Technology

  • This technology origin in physical sciences and applied engineering.
  • This technology more concerned with the production and utilization of audio-visual aid material, sophisticated instruments and mass media for helping teacher and learners in their task.
  • This technology tries to adopt product-oriented approach.
  • What is produced through software technology in the shape of teaching-learning material and strategy in being utilized by the hardware instruments and gadgets for effective teaching-learning.

Software Technology

  • This technology origin in behavioral sciences and their applied aspects concerning the psychology of learning.
  • This technology tries to make use of the psychology of learning for the production and utilization of software techniques and materials in terms of learning material, teaching-learning strategies, and other devices for smoothening the task of teaching-learning.
  • This technology tries to adopt a process-oriented technique approach for the production of teaching learning material and strategies.
  • The material produced here is made available for being used by the hardware application.

System Approach

  • System approach helps to identify the suitability of the resource material to achieve the specific goal.
  • The technological advances would be used to provide integration of machines, media, and people for attaining the defined goal.
  • It helps to access the resource needs, their sources, and facilities about quantities, time, and other factors.
  • It permits an orderly introduction of components demonstrated to be required for systems success in terms of student learning.
  • It avoids rigidity in the plan of action as continuous evolution affords desired beneficial changes to be made.

Theories of Educational Technology

These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools՚ frameworks


  • The theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward c. Tolman, Clark L Hull, and B. F. Skinner. B. F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on verbal behavior and wrote “the technology of teaching” , an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction.
  • Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to do something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.


  • While returning the empirical framework of behaviorism, cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. It refers to learning as “all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered and used” by the human mind.
  • Computer science and information technology have had a major influence on cognitive science theory. The cognitive concepts of working memory and long-term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of computer science. Another major influence on the field of cognitive science is Noam Chomsky.


  • Educational psychologist determines between several types of constructivism: individual or psychological constructivism such as piaget theory of cognitive development and social constructivism this form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives.
  • Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner-centered problem-based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities.

Advantage of Educational Technology

  • Flexibility for academics
  • Ease of uploading/downloading materials
  • Technology helps and enables them to reach people/students all over the world
  • Easier to search for information
  • Email communication
  • Easy to prepare notes.

Disadvantage of Educational Technology

  • Time spent learning the E-learning system
  • Loss of face-to-face contact with students.
  • Copying and memorizing materials by students
  • The downtime technical problems in IT/network
  • Increased work hours. For example, the materials have to be crystal clear, and even a single line takes time and thought to write upload, and communicate.
  • Increased work hours due to online assessment.


The systems that ET specialists (teachers, parents, and educationists) would have to think about would therefore have to be diverse. Efficient teaching-learning systems at every level, which use available resources and appropriate technologies and processes, and which are flexible enough to effect changes based on observations and evaluations, are the need of the hour.

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