Psychological Foundation of Education: Intelligence Test and Quotient

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Intelligence Test

  • Individual differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Due to the practical applications of intelligence in educational, psychological and work-settings, it is important to understand its measurement and testing.
  • Because there are many ways to be intelligent, there are also many approaches to testing of intelligence.
  • The most influential and systematic approach is based on psychometric testing.
  • Intelligence tests attempts to measure your intelligence, or your basic ability to understand the world around you, assimilate its functioning, apply this knowledge to enhance the quality of your life.

Intelligence Quotient

Meaning of IQ

  • The term “Intelligence quotient” (IQ) comes from Binet՚s test, in which each student՚s score was the quotient of his tested academic age his or her actual age.
  • William Stern, a Stanford University psychologist developed (1914) the concept of “Intelligence Quotient” (IQ) when he translated and revised the Binet-Simon intelligence scale. And named it Binet-Simon Intelligent Scale.
  • According to this instrument mental age should be equal to chronological age which means that that some type of ratio exists between two ages, leading to the use of term IQ (Intelligent Quotient) . The formula was simply to divide mental age by chronological age and assign a score on that basis. Thus, an average 6-year-old would have the score . A child of five (mentally) and 4 (chronologically) would have a score and one who has a mental age of 7 but a chronological age of 10 would have a score of 0.7. While the ratio system worked well, decimals become annoying to deal with, prompting one objector, William Stern, to simplify matters by multiplying the total by 100.
  • In this way, an intelligence score of 1.25 became an IQ of 125, while an IQ of 0.7 became one of 70. For example, a 6-year-old child with a mental age of 6 would have an IQ of 100 (the “average” IQ score) ; a 6-year-old child with a mental age of 3 would have an IQ of 67; a 6-year-old child with a mental age of 9 would have an IQ of 150.

IQ Scores and Ratings

Lewis Terman (1916) developed the original notion of IQ and proposed scale for classifying IQ scores:

  • Over 140 – Genius or near genius
  • 90 – 109 – Normal or average intelligence
  • Under 70 – Definite feeble –
  • 120 – 140 – Very superior intelligence
  • 80 – 89 – Dullness mindedness
  • 110 – 119 – Superior intelligence
  • 70 – 79 – Borderline deficiency
IQ Scores and Ratings

Administration of Intelligence Tests: Individual vs Group

Individually Administered Tests

  • This test which requires one-to-one consultation with the child involves both verbal and non-verbal subtests which can be combined to give an overall IQ.
  • Individual intelligence test may be of various types, some intelligence tests measure only one skill such as vocabulary or visual analogy and some may measure many components of the intelligence construct.
  • Binet՚s and Weschsler tests of intelligence are examples of individually administered tests.

Group Administered Tests

  • The group tests of intelligence enable us to test many individuals, in a relatively short period of time.
  • Thus, we can conveniently go in for large-scale testing.
  • Most group tests are of the pencil-and-paper variety. Typically, they include some combination of measures of language ability, memory skills, comprehension, analogical reasoning, and reading and mathematics aptitude.
  • The Raven՚s Progressive Matrices and Cattell՚s Culture Fair Tests are the examples of group-administered tests.

MCQ

(1) Who first develop the concept of IQ?

(a) Binet

(b) Simon

(c) William Stern

(d) Lewis Terman

Answer: (c) William Stern

(2) The formula of IQ is

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Answer: (d)

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