Levels of Teaching, Teaching Aptitude YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Memory, Understanding & Reflective: Levels of Teaching | Teaching Aptitude | NTA NET Paper 1

Levels of Teaching

  • Shape behavior
  • Bring desired changes
  • Acquire knowledge
  • Improve learning skills
  • Belief formation

Memory level - The Objective of the Memory Level of teaching is Just to impart information or knowledge to the learner.

This knowledge or information is factual in nature, which is acquired through a mechanical process (i.e.. memorization or rote learning)

Aims of Memory Level of Teaching: To get information, to train memory faculty, to retrain the learning material in-memory storage, to reproduce and recognize the learned information when required

  • Understanding something is to perceive the meaning, grasp the idea, and comprehend the meaning. In the field of Education and Psychology, the meaning of ‘understanding’ can be classified as
    • Seeing the total use of facts
    • Seeing relationship
    • A generalized insight
  • Reflective level of teaching: This level is also known as introspective level. Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over a period of time. It also means thinking deeply about something.
  • Reflective level of teaching is considered the highest level at which teaching is carried out.
  • It is highly thoughtful and useful.
  • A student can attain this level only after going through memory level and understanding level.
  • Teaching at the reflective level enables the students to solve the real problems of life.
  • At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation.

Herbart՚s Method

Herbart՚s Method

Memory level: Woods worth “Memory is the direct use of what is learned.”

Phases of Memory

  • Learning: learning of some facts.
  • Retention: to make the contents in the minds.
  • Recall: the learnt material experiences when brought to conscious mind
  • Recognition:

Herbart is the exponent of memory level of teaching.

  • Focus: emphasis on cramming of facts and development of following capacities;
    • Training of mental aspects.
    • Providing knowledge facts.
    • Retaining the learnt facts.
    • Recalling the learnt facts.
  • SYNTAX:

Herbartian Steps

  • Preparation: questions are asked to test the previous knowledge.
  • Statement of Aim: to acquaint the name of the topic.
  • Presentation: stimulating the mental activity, the pupils are provided with opportunities for self-learning.
  • Association: Mutual relationship is established among facts, events, and excerpts by comparison.
  • Generalization: principles and laws are formulated for the future life situations.
  • Application: new learnt knowledge is used in new situations.
  • Social system:
    • Pupil,
    • Teacher.
  • Support system: oral, written and essay type examination is used

Memory Level

Advantages

Disadvantages

Merits of Memory Level Teaching

  • Useful for children at lower classes. This is because of their intellect us under development and they have a rote memory.
  • The role of the teacher is important in this level of teaching and he is free to make choices of subject matter, plan it and can present it at will.
  • The knowledge acquired at memory level teaching forms a basis for the future i.e.. when student՚s intelligence and thinking is required.
  • Memory level teaching acts as the first step for understanding and reflective levels of teaching. It is pre-requisite for understanding level teaching.

Demerits of Memory Level Teaching

  • This does not contribute to the development of the student՚s capabilities.
  • Since at this level student learns by rote, the knowledge gained does not prove helpful in real life situations as it does not develops the talents of students.
  • The pupils are kept in strict discipline and cramming is insisted on this teaching.
  • Intelligence does not carry any importance in this type of teaching and it lacks motivation
  • Herbartian Theory – impart factual knowledge by mechanical memorization
  • Thorndike – Stimuli-response connection
  • Conditioning – operant and classical

Morrison՚s Method

Morrison՚s Method
  • Focus: mastery of the content.
  • Syntax: Morrison has divided understanding level of teaching in to 5 steps;
    • Exploration: testing previous knowledge, analyzing the content.
    • Presentation: content is presented, diagnosis, and recapitulation till the students understands.
    • Assimilation: generalization, individual activities, working in laboratory and library, test of content.
    • Organization: pupils are provided with the occasions for representation.
    • Recitation: pupil presents the content orally.
  • Social system: teacher control the behavior of the pupil, pupil, and teacher remain active in assimilation, pupil works with full involvement.
  • Support system: pupil pass exam in presentation to enter into assimilation, to enter into organization and recitation, at the end written test is taken. Similarly, recitation is followed by the oral test. Essay and objective type Qs is asked.

Reflective Level

Advantages

Disadvantages

Merits of Reflective Level Teaching

  • The teaching at this level is not teacher-centered or subject-centered, it is learner-centered.
  • There is an interaction between the teacher and the taught at the reflective level teaching.
  • At this level, teaching is appropriate for the higher class.
  • At this level, teaching is highly thoughtful and useful than the teaching at the memory or understanding level.

Demerits of Reflective Level Teaching

  • Not suitable for small children at the lower level of teaching. It is suitable only for mentally matured children
  • At this level, the study material is neither organized nor pre-planned. Therefore students cannot acquire systematic and organized knowledge of their study courses

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