Measurement and Evaluation: Types & Standards YouTube Lecture Handouts for Competitive Exams 2021

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Measurement & Evaluation: Difference, Formative & Summative, Criterion & Norm Referenced

Measurement: Collection of information on which decision is based.

  • It determines degree to which an individual possess a defined characteristics
  • Uses tests with evidence of reliability and validity to secure data essential to evaluation process

Evaluation: Use of measurement in making decisions with goal of improvement. Information is interpreted relative to established standards so that decision can be made & success depends on quality of data.

It is a feedback system to monitor quality of instruction and training

Steps involved

  • Collection of data (measurement)
  • Judge value of data based on standard
  • Make decision based on data

Objective Test: When two or more people who score the same test assign similar scores

Subjective Test: Lacks standardized scoring system and introduces source of measurement error

6 Purpose of Testing That Facilitate Decision Making

  • Placement: Group or place students based on abilities
  • Diagnosis: Find the weakness
  • Evaluation of Achievement: Whether individuals have reached important objectives
  • Prediction: Used to predict individual՚s achievement in future activities (example, aerobic capacity VO2max assessed during treadmill test can be used to estimate performance on run test)
  • Program Evaluation: Test results can be used as one piece of evidence to evaluate program
  • Motivation: Test scores can be motivating

Types of Evaluation

Table of Types of Evaluation
Formative EvaluationSummative Evaluation
During instructionAt the end of instruction
Explicitly defined behaviorCombination of specific behaviors
Criterion referencedNorm or Criterion referenced
Feedback to student and teacher on progressCertification or grading at the end of the curriculum
Divide in smaller subunits and evaluate mastery in eachAbility to integrate and apply readings

Standards of Evaluation

Criterion Referenced: Check if someone has achieved a specific level – used to set performance standards for all

Standards of Evaluation
  • Performance is compared against standard and individual
  • Absolute evaluation
  • Measurements are directly interpretable in terms of explicit performance standards
  • Use categorical variables like dichotomies (pass-fail, true-false)
  • Validity can be judged by contingency table
  • Challenge lies in setting appropriate standard
Criterion Test
  • Negative test implies absence of entity being tested (negative test for heart disease is absence of heart disease)

Norm Referenced: Judge an individual՚s performance in relation to performance of others in the group – used for comparison when situation requires selectivity

  • Developed by testing large number of people
  • Descriptive statistics is used to develop standards
  • Common method is percentile rank
  • Relative evaluation
  • Use continuous variables
Norm Referenced

Practice Time

On the basis of summative tests, a teacher is interpreting his/her students, performance in terms of their wellness life style evident in behavior. This will be called:

(NET Nov 2017)

(1) Continuous and comprehensive evaluation

(2) Norm - referenced testing

(3) Criterion - referenced testing

(4) Formative testing

Answer: 3

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