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Mudaliar Commission: Secondary Education Commission

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Secondary Education Commission – problems, organization, aims and relation to primary education

Dr. A. Lakshmanswami Mudaliar was VC of Madras University.

  • In 1952

  • Period of secondary education from 11 to 17 years (junior secondary for 3 years and higher secondary for 4 years)

  • Diversification of courses for general and vocational subjects

  • 12th class should be attached to the university and the 11th class should be added to the high school. Thus, it pleaded for one year pre-university and 3 year degree courses.

  • Technical schools should be started in large number and central technical institutes should be established in large cities.

  • Multi-purpose schools should be established, which would provide terminal courses in technology, commerce, agriculture, fine arts and home sciences.

  • Regional language with one compulsory language and then select optional courses in either humanities, sciences, technical, commercial, agricultural, fine arts and home science

  • Public schools should be reconstructed as secondary schools after 5 years.

  • Boys and girls should be provided same education through co-education

  • Principle “Activity Method” and “Project Method” should be followed in practice.

  • Adequate opportunity to work in groups

  • ‘Experimental’ and ‘Demonstration’ schools should be opened

  • Focused on symbolic rather than numerical marking

Commission pointed out defects of the existing system -

  • Education given in our schools is isolated from life.

  • It is narrow and one sided and it fails to train personality as a whole.

  • Too much importance has been given to English.

  • Method of teaching generally practised failed to develop in the students their independence of thought and initiative in action.

  • Increase in size of the classes has considerably reduced personal contact between the teachers and the pupils.

  • Dead weight of the examination has tended to curb the teachers initiative, to stereotype the curriculum, to promote mechanical and lifeless methods of teaching, to discourage all spirit of experimentation.


  • Development of democratic citizenship

  • Improve vocational efficiency - Develop capacity to earn money

  • Education for leadership

  • Development of personality

Principles to be Followed

  • Totality of experience

  • Variety and elasticity

  • Relating to community

  • Training for leisure

  • Integration and correlation

There Should be Special Criteria For

  • Accommodation

  • Equipment

  • Qualifications of the staff

  • Salaries and Grades

  • Adequate finances to ensure that the institution will continue to function efficiently

Area of not less than 10 sq ft is provided per student in the classroom

The optimum number of boys to be admitted to any class should be 30 and the maximum should not in any case exceed 40; the optimum number in the whole school should be 500 while the maximum should not exceed 750.

total number of working days in a school should not be less than 200, the working hours per week should be at least 35 periods of about 45 minutes each working for 6 days a week

Cess called industrial education cess be levied, the amount collected to be utilized for the furtherance of technical and vocational education at the secondary stage.

Merits of Commission

  • Activity based education.

  • Stress on agricultural education.

  • Discussion of aims of secondary education.

  • Child-centered education.

  • Improvement in teacher’s salary and position.

  • Co-curricular activities.

  • No more stress on external examinations.

  • Stress on multi-purpose schools.

  • Suggestion to open technical schools near industries.

Demerits of the Commission

  • Suggestions are given in haste, so problems are still there.

  • No new statement regarding the improvement of social and economic conditions of teachers.

  • No suggestions regarding women education.

  • Still stress on English.

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