Grammar Translation Method: The Method, Main Objectives and Language Use

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GTM is a method of foreign or second language teaching which uses translation and grammar study as main teaching and learning activities.


  • Oldest method
  • Classical or traditional
  • To teach Greek and Latin

The Method

  • Before English, Latin and Greek were popular
  • Scholars
  • Karl Plotz
  • Meidinger
  • Ahn
  • 18th century

Main Objectives

  • Read literature in target language
  • Translation
  • Reading and writing skills

Language Use

  • L1: Classroom instruction, teaching
  • L2: Limited


  • Grammar rules are taught directly
  • Translation of English into learner՚s mother tongue
  • Written form is more important than spoken
  • Literary texts are the materials
  • Oral skills are neglected
  • Reading and writing skills are more important
  • Listening and speaking are neglected


  • To read the foreign language՚s literature
  • Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized
  • Bilingual word list, dictionary, memorization
  • Accuracy
  • Grammar is taught deductively
  • Native language – Medium of instruction


  • Translation
  • Reading comprehension
  • Vocabulary activities
  • Grammar activities

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