Second Language Acquisition Theory: Learning-Acquisition Hypothesis

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  • Krashen
  • Dulay
  • Burt
  • Terrell


  • The Learning-Acquisition Hypothesis
  • The Natural Order Hypothesis
  • The Monitor Hypothesis
  • The Input Hypothesis
  • The Affective Filter Hypothesis

Learning- Acquisition Hypothesis

  • Sub-conscious acquisition
  • Conscious learning
  • Acquisition – Meaningful interaction, Message is important, no formal teaching
  • Learning- formal teaching

Natural Order Hypothesis

  • Grammatical structures are acquired and not learnt
  • Progressive markers (-ing) and Plural markers (-s) – Early
  • Possessive markers (- ″ s) and Third person marker (-s)

Monitor Hypothesis

  • Conscious learning- Monitor or editor
  • Focus- language form and grammatical rules
  • Monitor- Writing rather than speaking
  • Corrections on own initiative
  • Spelling and Grammar checker

Input Hypothesis

  • Comprehensible and challenging
  • i + 1 level
  • i – present level of the learner
  • i + 1 – level of language presented to him, a bit beyond his level

Affective- Filter Hypothesis

  • Learner acquires language only when they are willing to acquire
  • Negative conditions do not help acquisition
  • Positive conditions promote acquisition
  • Acquisition rich environment


1. Which hypothesis talks about i + 1 Level?

A. Input hypothesis

B. Natural order hypothesis

C. Monitor hypothesis

D. Learner hypothesis

Answer: A. Input Hypothesis

2. What are the characteristics of acquisition?

A Sub conscious learning

B. Implicit Knowledge

C. Non-formal teaching

D. All of the above

Answer: D. All of the above

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