# Thermodynamics Basics for Competitive Exams 2021

Glide to success with Doorsteptutor material for competitive exams : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Thermodynamics: Laws Of Thermodynamics And Heat Transfer Processes (Environmental Science)

## Laws of Thermodynamics

• First Law:

Stated by Mayer and Helmholtz

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed by any physical or chemical change. It may change from one form to another.

Where,

• Second Law:

According to Kelvin, it is impossible to take heat from a cold reservoir and convert it into work without at the same time transferring heat from a hot to cold reservoir.

• Third Law:

It is not possible to reduce the temperature of any system to absolute zero by any method involving finite number of operations, however, the ideal method may be.

## Heat Transfer Processes

• Planck՚s Law

Every object emits over the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

• Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Total energy emitted by a black body is directly proportional to fourth power of its temperature.

• Wien՚s Displacement Law

The product of peak wavelength and temperature of a blackbody radiator is constant.

## Material Balance

• Also known as Mass balance.
• Used to find the accumulation of a contaminant/pollutant/substance in a particular region.
• Those particular region are also called as control volume.

## Mass Balance Equation

Accumulation rate = Input rate – Output rate + Reaction rate

Input rate = Output rate

#Thermodynamics

#UGC NTA NET

#Fundamentals of Environmental science

#Laws of thermodynamics

#Thermodynamicprocess

#Mass and energy transfer across interfaces

#Material balance

Developed by: