Treaties, Environment, Standards, Non-Proliferation, Security Related

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for UGC : Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 123K)

Environment

Two environmental priorities internationally now are:

  • Climate Change Mitigation

  • Biodiversity Conservation

Convention on Biodiversity

CBD has failed in its original goal of reduce the loss of biodiversity significantly by 2010. Next meeting of CBD is scheduled for 2012 in New Delhi.

Cartagena Protocol

On biosafety. It is a part of the CBD.

Ramsar Convention

On wetlands. 1972. 25 sites from India

Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

Rotterdam Convention

On the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade.

Signed: 1998 Effective: 2004

Signatories: 73 Parties: 128

Stockholm Convention

On Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of POPs.

Signed: 2001 Effective: 2004

Signatories: 152 Parties: 169

Basel Convention

On the control of Transboundary movements of hazardous waste and their disposal

Signed: 1989 Effective: 1992

Signatories: 51 Parties: 175

Standards

Codex Alimentarius

CA is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes or practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety developed by the FAO and WHO.

Non-Proliferation

Wassenaar Arrangement

On export controls for conventional arms and dual use goods and technologies. It is a multilateral export control regime with 40 participating states (india is not yet a member: Nov 2010). Its secretariat is located in Vienna.

Estd: 1996

It is the successor to the cold war era Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls.

The Australia Group

The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonisation of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.

Est: 1985

Missile Technology Control Regime

The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal and voluntary partnership between 34 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km.

Est: 1987

Missile Technology Control Regime
Missile Technology Control Regime

Treaty

Year

Parties

Provisions

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

1972

US-Soviet Union

To limit ABM systems used in defending areas against missile delivered nuclear weapons

US unilaterally withdrew in 2002

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

1996/Not in force

Will come into force 180 days after it is ratified by all 44 annex 2 countries. India, US, Pakistan, Israel are Annex 2 countries.

India, Pak, N. Korea havnt signed

Partial Test Ban Treaty

1963

Banned nuclear tests in atmosphere, underwater and in space.

NPT

1968/1970

189

Major non-parties: India, Pakistan, North Korea, Israel.

N Korea withdrew in 2003.

Iran is a party

3 pillars: non-proliferation, disarmament, peaceful use

Interim Agreement on Offensive Arms (SALT I)

1972

US-Soviet Union

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II)

1979

US-Soviet Union

Replaced SALT I. US withdrew from SALT II in 1986.

Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

1987

Global ban on short and long range nuclear weapons systems, as well as intrusive verification regime

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I)

1991/1994

US-Soviet independent states

Limited long range nuclear forces

START II

1993/never put into force

Russia – US

Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT or Moscow treaty)

2002/2003

Ambiguous. US and Russia agreed to reduce their strategic nuclear warheads to between 1700 and 2200 by 2012

New START

2010/2011

Russia – US

Replaces SORT. Reduces nuclear warheads by about half. Will remain into force until at least 2021.

International Conference on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation was held in Tehran in 2010. US didn’t attend.

Security Related
Security Related

Treaty

Year

Parties

Provisions

Biological Weapons Convention

1972/1975

163

Bans the production of biological and toxin weapons

Chemical Weapons Convention

1993/1997

188

Depository: UN Sec Gen

Prohibits the use and production of chemical weapons

Non-parties: Angola, Burma, Egypt, Israel, N. Korea, Somalia, Syria

Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons

1981/1983

109

Restricts the use of certain excessively injurious conventional weapons

Convention on Cluster Munitions

2008/2010

Parties: 108. Sign: 55

Prohibits the use, transfer and stockpile of cluster bombs

Civil Nuclear

Civil Nuclear
Civil Nuclear

Treaty

Year

Imp points

Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

1963/1977

Operator’s liability limit at not less than 300 mn SDR

International Ownership

International Ownership
International Ownership

Treaty

Year

Major Points

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

1982

Defines territorial waters. Territorial sea – up to 12 nm

Contiguous zone – from 12 nm upto 24 nm

EEZ: from 12 nm to 200 nm (includes contiguous zone)

Developed by: