Treaties, Environment, Standards, Non-Proliferation, Security Related

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Two environmental priorities internationally now are:

  • Climate Change Mitigation
  • Biodiversity Conservation

Convention on Biodiversity

CBD has failed in its original goal of reduce the loss of biodiversity significantly by 2010. Next meeting of CBD is scheduled for 2012 in New Delhi.

Cartagena Protocol

On biosafety. It is a part of the CBD.

Ramsar Convention

On wetlands. 1972.25 sites from India

Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

Rotterdam Convention

On the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade.

Signed: 1998 Effective: 2004

Signatories: 73 Parties: 128

Stockholm Convention

On Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of POPs.

Signed: 2001 Effective: 2004

Signatories: 152 Parties: 169

Basel Convention

On the control of Transboundary movements of hazardous waste and their disposal

Signed: 1989 Effective: 1992

Signatories: 51 Parties: 175


Codex Alimentarius

CA is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes or practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety developed by the FAO and WHO.


Wassenaar Arrangement

On export controls for conventional arms and dual use goods and technologies. It is a multilateral export control regime with 40 participating states (india is not yet a member: Nov 2010) . Its secretariat is located in Vienna.

Estd: 1996

It is the successor to the cold war era Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls.

The Australia Group

The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonisation of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.

Est: 1985

Missile Technology Control Regime

The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal and voluntary partnership between 34 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km.

Est: 1987

Missile Technology Control Regime
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty1972US-Soviet UnionTo limit ABM systems used in defending areas against missile delivered nuclear weapons

US unilaterally withdrew in 2002

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)1996/Not in forceWill come into force 180 days after it is ratified by all 44 annex 2 countries. India, US, Pakistan, Israel are Annex 2 countries.

India, Pak, N. Korea havnt signed

Partial Test Ban Treaty1963Banned nuclear tests in atmosphere, underwater and in space.
NPT1968/1970189Major non-parties: India, Pakistan, North Korea, Israel.

N Korea withdrew in 2003.

Iran is a party

3 pillars: non-proliferation, disarmament, peaceful use

Interim Agreement on Offensive Arms (SALT I)1972US-Soviet Union
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II)1979US-Soviet UnionReplaced SALT I. US withdrew from SALT II in 1986.
Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty1987Global ban on short and long range nuclear weapons systems, as well as intrusive verification regime
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I)1991/1994US-Soviet independent statesLimited long range nuclear forces
START II1993/never put into forceRussia – US
Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT or Moscow treaty)2002/2003Ambiguous. US and Russia agreed to reduce their strategic nuclear warheads to between 1700 and 2200 by 2012
New START2010/2011Russia – USReplaces SORT. Reduces nuclear warheads by about half. Will remain into force until at least 2021.

International Conference on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation was held in Tehran in 2010. US didn՚t attend.

Security Related

Security Related
Biological Weapons Convention1972/1975163Bans the production of biological and toxin weapons
Chemical Weapons Convention1993/1997188Depository: UN Sec Gen

Prohibits the use and production of chemical weapons

Non-parties: Angola, Burma, Egypt, Israel, N. Korea, Somalia, Syria

Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons1981/1983109Restricts the use of certain excessively injurious conventional weapons
Convention on Cluster Munitions2008/2010Parties: 108. Sign: 55Prohibits the use, transfer and stockpile of cluster bombs

Civil Nuclear

Civil Nuclear
TreatyYearImp points
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage1963/1977Operator՚s liability limit at not less than 300 mn SDR

International Ownership

International Ownership
TreatyYearMajor Points
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea1982Defines territorial waters. Territorial sea – up to 12 nm

Contiguous zone – from 12 nm upto 24 nm

EEZ: from 12 nm to 200 nm (includes contiguous zone)

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