Sustainable Development Goals-Most Important Points Important for Competitive Exams

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  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) also known as the Global Goals were adopted in 2015 to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.
  • These goals first of all were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012.
  • 193 member countries including India got committed to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals that require efforts to end all forms of poverty, inequalities and tackle climate change.
Sustainable Development Goals
  • Mnemonics used HELP GI PICS RC - H (No Hunger, Health) E (Education, Equality) L (Life below Water, On land) P (Peace and Justice, Partnership) G (Gender Equality & Economic Growth) I (Innovation, Infrastructure) P (No Poverty, Partnerships) I (Inequality) C (Climate Action) S (Sustainable Cities) R (Responsible Consumption) C (Clean Water and Sanitation) .

Needs of Sustainable Development Goals

  • These goals meet the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
  • These goals aim at ensuring a strong, healthy and just society.
  • The aim is also to meet the diverse needs of all people in existing and future communities, promoting personal wellbeing, social cohesion, and inclusion, and creating equal opportunity.
  • Sustainable Development Goals are also essential to counter the greenhouse emissions which can have an irreversible and catastrophic impact across the world.

SDG India Index Baseline Report

  • India ranks 95 among 129 countries in global gender equality index. The aspects include poverty, health, education, literacy, political representation and equality at the workplace. Denmark was ranked at the first place and Chad at 129th place.
  • The factors based on which the ranking has been done also includes proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (score of 23.6, 16th in region, women made up 11.8 per cent of parliament in 2018) .
  • In Asia India ranks 17 with a score of 56.2 points out of the 23 countries including the Pacific countries covered by the index.
  • The new index released in 2019 includes 51 indicators across 14 of the 17 official Sustainable Development Goals and covers 129 countries across all regions of the world.
  • The SDG Index Score for Sustainable Development Goals 2030 extends between 42 and 69 for States and between 57 and 68 for UTs.

Performance of States

  • Kerala and Himachal Pradesh are the front runners with an SDG India Index score of 69. Chandigarh is a front runner with a score of 68.
  • Kerala՚s top rank is based on its superior performance in providing good health, reducing hunger, achieving gender equality and providing quality education.
  • Himachal Pradesh performed brilliantly in providing clean water and sanitation, in reducing inequalities and preserving mountain ecosystem.
  • Chandigarh has done well in providing clean water and sanitation to its people.
  • The states like Assam, Bihar and UP have featured badly in the index as their score was below 49.

India՚s Commitment to SDGs

Clean Fuel

  • This includes introduction of BS-VI petrol and diesel.
  • Delhi became the first Indian city to leapfrog from BS-IV to BS-VI.
  • Other major cities that have proposed to introduce BS-VI petrol and diesel include Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, etc.
  • The rest of the Indian states will make the change from April 2020 next year.

No Plastics

  • India is committed to eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.

International Solar Alliance (ISA)

  • It is a group of 121 solar rich countries with an aim to deploy over 1000 GW of solar energy and mobilize more than $ 1000 billion into solar power by 2030.

Climate Change

  • India is pledged to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
  • In terms of cumulative electric power installed capacity, India aims to achieve 40 % from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030, with the help of transfer of technology and low-cost international finance.
  • By 2030, India has also pledged to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover.