Expected Environment Questions 2017 Set 1 Youtube Lecture

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS 2017 Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS 2017
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Cloud Seeding Project for 2017 Monsoon

AgI

  • First controlled experiment to quantify extent to which clouds form water drops large enough to make rain.

  • Ground radar will be used to track clouds and verify which ones contributed rain.

  • Largest cloud seeding system in world: China. Rain in arid regions in Beijing just before 2008 Olympic Games to clear air pollution.

  • USA: To increase precipitation in areas of drought, to reduce size of hailstones that form in thunderstorms, and to reduce amount of fog in and around airports.

  • 2006, an $8.8 million cloud seeding project began in Wyoming.

  • Australia: CSIRO’s activities in Tasmania in 1960s - Seeding over Hydro-Electricity Commission catchment area on Central Plateau – increased rain to as high as 30% in autumn.

  • Russian military pilots seeded clouds over Belarus after Chernobyl disaster to remove radioactive particles from clouds heading towards Moscow.

    Image of Cloud Seeding Project For 2017 Monsoon

    Image of Cloud Seeding Project for 2017 Monsoon

    Image of Cloud Seeding Project For 2017 Monsoon

Barren Island: House of India’S Active Volcano

  • Volcano started erupting in 1991 and has since then shown intermittent activity.

  • It had started showing activity in 1991 after being dormant for over 150 years.

  • Andaman Basin - sea floor samples.

  • Daytime - ash clouds.

  • Sunset - red lava fountains from crater.

  • Scientists recovered coal-like black pyroclastic material from the area.

  • Barren Island volcano is located 140-km north-east of Port Blair.

    Image of House of India’s Active Volcano

    Image of House of India’S Active Volcano

    Image of House of India’s Active Volcano

Newly Formed Fracture in Indian Ocean May Trigger Quakes in Future

  • Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences

  • New plate boundary forming on the floor of Indian Ocean in the Wharton Basin.

  • Conducted sea floor depth analysis by venturing into the ocean aboard a research vessel.

  • New fault system off the coast of Sumatra that was involved in the 2012 quakes.

  • Plate had broken along a 1, 000 km fracture zone - site of future fault-slip quakes.

  • Wharton Basin

    Image of Location of Boundary Affected Area

    Image of Location of Boundary Affected Area

    Image of Location of Boundary Affected Area

Focus on Biodiversity

Biosphere

Agasthamala among 20 UNESCO world biosphere reserves

  • Location -Western Ghats

  • Comprises mostly of tropical forests

  • Shendurney, Peppara, Neyyar & Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger reserve

Myanmar’s first UNESCO Biosphere Reserve

Location: Inle Lake in Shan state

Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program (1971)

Aim: Improve relationships between people & environments

  • To safeguard natural and managed ecosystems

  • Promoting innovative approaches to economic development

    Image of Biosphere Reserves In India

    Image of Biosphere Reserves in India

    Image of Biosphere Reserves In India

Pakke Tiger Reserve

  • East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh has won the ‘India Biodiversity Award 2016’

  • Conservation of threatened species category for its Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme

Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme

  • Joint collaboration of Ghora-Aabhe Society, Nature Conservation Foundation & State Forest Department.

  • Urban citizens contribute money to protect hornbill nests (4 species)

India Biodiversity Award

  • 4 categories

    • Conservation of Threatened Species

    • Sustainable use of biological resources

    • Successful models for access and benefit sharing

    • Biodiversity Management Committees

  • Joint initiative of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) and UNDP

  • Winner: Cash prize of 1 lakh rupees & runners up receive 50,000 rupees

Declining Vulture Population

  • In Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS), Kerala

  • Culprit: Diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory drug

  • Constituent of – Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and Elephant Reserve No.7 (world’s largest recorded population of Asiatic elephant).

Why Are Vultures Important?

  • Natural disposal of livestock carcasses.

  • Livestock carcasses can cause anthrax, and encourage pest species, such as rats.

  • Increase in the number of feral dogs - bites can led to human rabies

  • Substitute for Diclofenac – Meloxicam (Safe for Vultures)

  • Haryana Government launched Asia’s first ‘Gyps Vulture Reintroduction Programme’ at the Jatayu Conservation Breeding Centre at Pinjore

Raptor MoU

Image of Raptor MoU

Image of Raptor MoU

Image of Raptor MoU

  • Conservation of birds of prey in Africa and Eurasia

  • India->56th country to sign the Raptor MoU

  • Agreement under Article IV paragraph 4 of the CMS and is not legally binding.

  • Raptors MoU extends its coverage to 76 species of birds of prey

  • 46 species, including vultures, falcons, eagles, owls, hawks, kites, harriers, etc. also occur in India.

  • In line with existing Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972.

  • Pakistan and Nepal also signed the MoU.

Nagaland’S Doyang Lake

  • Doyang lake, Wokha in Nagaland, famous for the world's longest travelling raptors - Amur falcons

  • They come to roost here during their flight from Mongolia to South Africa

  • Doyang lake area as an eco-tourism spot

  • Pangti village in Nagaland -World's Amur Falcon capital (more than one million birds can be seen in just 30 minutes)

  • IUCN has categorized and evaluated these falcon species and has listed them as of "Least Concern"

    Image of Nagaland’s Doyang Lake

    Image of Nagaland’S Doyang Lake

    Image of Nagaland’s Doyang Lake

NGT Halts Tawang Hydro Power Project

Tawang hydro power project in Arunachal Pradesh.

Black-necked crane: Breeds on the Tibetan plateau and migrates to Tawang for the winter.

  • Listed in India’s Wildlife Act as a Schedule 1 species (gives animals and birds the highest legal protection)

  • India – “Vulnerable”- IUCN – Sacred to Buddhists

  • Common in China

  • Legally protected in Bhutan

Other Species in the region:

  • Red Panda

  • Snow Leopard

  • Arunachal Macaque

    Image of NGT Halts Tawang Hydro Power Project

    Image of NGT Halts Tawang Hydro Power Project

    Image of NGT Halts Tawang Hydro Power Project

Biological Diversity Act, 2002

To conserve and promote sustainable use of biological diversity

To regulate the access to biological resources of the country with equitable share in benefits

Set up:

  • National Biodiversity Authority (NBA)

  • State Biodiversity Board (SBB)

  • Biodiversity Management Committees

Protect knowledge of local communities, traditional knowledge related to biodiversity and secure sharing of benefits with local people.

South Asia Wildlife Enforcement Network (SAWEN)

  • Approval for India

  • Ministry of Environment and Forests is the nodal agency

  • Helps to control the trans-boundary wildlife crime

  • SAWEN, a Regional network is comprised of 8 countries in South Asia:

    • Afghanistan

    • Bangladesh

    • Bhutan

    • India

    • Maldives

    • Nepal

    • Pakistan

    • Sri Lanka

  • Strong regional intergovernmental body for combating wildlife crime

  • Region has precious biodiversity and large markets very vulnerable to illegal traffic and wildlife crimes.

Ballast Water Discharge

Used by ocean bound ships to provide balance and stability while navigation

  • Exotic species transported

  • Globally more than 10,000 exotic marine species are transported

  • In India - 10 invasive exotic species in the coastal waters of Kerala

  • Damage to our coastal ecosystems and lead to severe loss of biodiversity

  • 10 Common Species

    • Cholera Vibrio cholerae

    • Cladoceran Water Flea Cercopagis pengoi

    • Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    • Toxic algae (red/brown/green tides)

    • Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus

    • North American Comb Jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    • North Pacific Seastar Asterias amurensis

    • Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    • Asian Kelp Undaria pinnatifida

    • European Green Crab Carcinus maenas

Image of Ballast Water Discharge

Image of Ballast Water Discharge

Image of Ballast Water Discharge

Snowflake Corals

  • For first in 1972 it was reported as an invasive species from Hawaii

  • Native of the tropical Western Atlantic and Caribbean

  • Spread to countries like Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines

  • Inhabit reefs and underwater structures such as piers and shipwreck

  • Can attach itself to metal, concrete and even plastic

In India:

  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  • Gulf of Mannar

  • Gulf of Kutch

  • Goa

Threats:

  • Can destabilize the marine ecosystem

  • It can crowd out other marine species

    Image of Snowflake Corals

    Image of Snowflake Corals

    Image of Snowflake Corals

Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation

  • Co-organized by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, National Tiger Conservation Authority, Global Tiger Forum, Global Tiger Initiative Council, Wildlife Institute of India, WWF and Wildlife Conservation Trust

  • Project Tiger in 1972 - 70% of the global wild tiger population is in India

  • National Tiger Conservation Authority is responsible for implementation of the Project Tiger plan

  • 13 Tiger Range Countries

    • Bangladesh

    • Bhutan

    • Cambodia

    • China

    • Indonesia

    • India

    • Laos

    • Malaysia

    • Myanmar

    • Nepal

    • Russian Federation

    • Thailand

    • Vietnam

    Image of Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation

    Image of Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation

    Image of Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation

Gorewada Zoo and Wildlife Rescue Centre

  • India’s biggest Wildlife Rescue Centre

  • At Gorewada near Nagpur, Maharashtra

  • Managed by: Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra (FDCM)

  • Created on the lines of Gujarat based Gir National Park

  • 1914 Hectares of land

    Image of Bio Park

    Image of Bio Park

    Image of Bio Park

Russian Poplars

Mass awareness campaign in Kashmir to protect the poplar trees

In 2014: J&K High Court first banned the sale, purchase and plantation of Russian Poplars

During summers, populous deltoids—female poplar—sheds a cotton-like material carrying seeds that cause allergy and respiratory disorders.

Russian Poplars

  • Nothing to do with Russia

  • Russi Frass variety from USA

  • It grows faster than the local variety

  • Central to rural economy in Kashmir

  • Source of livelihood for many because fruit boxes are made of it

  • Forms a canopy over the highways

  • Tourist attraction

Image of Russian Poplars

Image of Russian Poplars

Image of Russian Poplars

Focus on Disaster Mitigation

Focus on Waste Management

Image of Focus on Waste Management

Image of Focus on Waste Management

Image of Focus on Waste Management

E-Waste Management Rules 2016

Supersession of e-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2011.

E-Waste Rules

  • Stringent norms and reflect the government’s commitment to environmental governance.

  • Include Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and other mercury containing lamps

  • Producers under Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), along with targets.

  • Collection is Producers responsibility.

  • Ensure safety, health and skill development of the workers involved in dismantling and recycling operations.

  • Provision of penalty for violation of rules has been introduced.

  • Simplify process of dismantling and recycling by one system of authorization

  • Single authorization by Central Pollution Control Board in India.

Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling &Transboundary Movement) Rule, 2016

  • Total hazardous waste: 7.46 million metric tons per annum from 44,000 industries

  • Started in 1989, 2000, 2003, 2008 & 2016

  • Ambit of the Rules has been expanded to ‘Other Waste’.

  • Prevention, minimization, reuse, recycling, recovery, co-processing; and safe disposal has been incorporated.

  • Revise rules for permission, import/export, filing of annual returns, transportation, etc.

  • Merge all the approvals as a single window clearance.

  • Co-processing as preferential mechanism over disposal for use of waste as supplementary resource, or for recovery of energy has been provided.

  • Streamline approval.

  • Import of metal scrap, paper waste and various categories of electrical and electronic equipments for re-use purpose has been exempted.

  • Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) specific to waste type given.

Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016

  • Changed from Management and Handling, 20111 to Management in 2016

  • From 10 categories to 4 categories

  • Barcode system for disposal

  • Phase-out use of chlorinated plastic bags, gloves and blood bags within two years

  • Immunize all its health care workers & those involved in handling of bio-medical waste for protection against diseases including Hepatitis B and Tetanus - transmitted by handling of bio-medical waste

    Image of Biomedical Waste Rules, 2016

    Image of Biomedical Waste Rules, 2016

    Image of Biomedical Waste Rules, 2016

    Image of Laboratory Waste Disposal Guide

    Image of Laboratory Waste Disposal Guide

    Image of Laboratory Waste Disposal Guide

  • Focus on Disaster Mitigation

National Disaster Management Plan, 2016

  • First ever national plan prepared in the country

  • Ethical guidelines for media – respecting dignity and privacy of community

Aim: To make India disaster resilient and reduce loss of lives

Based on: Four priority themes of the “Sendai Framework”

  • Understanding disaster risk

  • Improving disaster risk governance

  • Investing in disaster risk reduction (through structural and non-structural measures)

  • Disaster preparedness, early warning and building back better in the aftermath of a disaster

Sendai Framework

15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement for disaster reduction.

Targets by 2030

  • Reduce global disaster mortality.

  • Reduce the number of affected people globally.

  • Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global GDP.

  • Reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services.

  • Increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction.

  • Enhance international cooperation to developing countries.

  • Increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information.