Microcomputer and Minicomputer, Mainframe and Super Computers, RAM and Cache Memory

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Microcomputer & Minicomputer


  • A microcomputer is a standard desktop computer used at a home and in business.
  • A microcomputer is a computer with a microprocessor as its CPU.
  • They are cheap, compact and can be easily accommodated on a study table.
  • Microcomputer is a single-user computer.
  • The two most common types of storage devices used with microcomputers are tapes and disks.
  • Microcomputer is not powerful or as fast as minicomputer.
  • Examples are- Modern computers like desktop, laptop etc.


  • Minicomputers are mid-sized computer used in universities, research labs and small corporations.
  • Minicomputers are faster than microcomputers.
  • They are expensive and larger than microcomputer.
  • Minicomputer is a multi-user computer.
  • For secondary storage, most minicomputers use magnetic disks or tapes.
  • Minicomputer is powerful than microcomputer but not as supercomputer and mainframe computer.
  • Examples are- IBM 9375, Motorola 68040 etc.

Mainframe & Super Computers

Mainframe Computers

  • The largest computers called mainframe computers are the oldest category of computer system.
  • They are capable of great processing speed and data storage.
  • These are always kept in air-cooled rooms.
  • They are mainly used in banks, airlines and industrial companies.

Super Computers

  • The super computers are fastest of all computers.
  • It was invented by two brothers Gregory and David in New York.
  • These computers have high capacity to work.
  • These also require air-conditioned rooms.
  • The super computers are mainly used in
  • Automotive engineering
  • Modelling nuclear explosion
  • Aero plane designing
  • Oil exploration
  • Weather forecasting etc.

RAM & Cache Memory


  • It stands for random access memory.
  • It is an optical disc, where data and information are stored permanently.
  • RAM is the primary storage media.
  • RAM is the primary storage device from which the system boots.
  • RAM is stored on RAM chip.
  • The data or information stored on it can be written on or it can be erased.

Cache Memory

  • Cache memory is a special high-speed memory that the CPU can access quickly.
  • It is used in computers with very fast CPUs, so that these CPUs don՚t have to wait for Data to be delivered from RAM.
  • The most frequently used instructions are kept in the cache memory.
  • This allows the CPU to run faster because it does not have to take time to swap instructions in and out of RAM.

Rotation & Revolution of Earth

Rotation of Earth

  • It is the movement of the earth in which the earth makes rotation around its axis.
  • Rotation of the earth occurs from West to East.
  • The main effect of the rotation of the earth is the formation of days and nights.

Revolution of Earth

  • It is the movement of the earth, in which the earth makes revolution around the sun.
  • Revolution of the earth occurs in counterclockwise direction or from right to left.
  • The main effect of the revolution of the earth is the change of seasons.

Dicot & Monocot Stem

Dicot Stem

  • In dicot stem pericyclic is broken.
  • There are few vascular bundles.
  • The vascular bundles are open.

Monocot Stem

  • In monocot stem pericyclic is not broken.
  • There are many vascular bundles.
  • The vascular bundles are closed.

Penumbra & Umbra


The term relates to the solar and lunar eclipse. When during its revolution, the moon comes between the sun and the earth then solar eclipse takes place. A shadow is created. The outer shadow region in the eclipse is called penumbra.


Similarly, when the solar eclipse takes place, two regions of shadow are created. Out of these the dark inner shadow region is called Umbra.

Nucleus & Nucleolus


  • The nucleus is the main organelle.
  • It is mostly present in the center of the cell.
  • It is membrane bound.
  • The nucleus contains DNA.
  • It contains hereditary material in the form of chromosome and genes and controls all the activities of the cell.


  • The nucleolus is a sub-organelle.
  • It is present in nucleus.
  • It is non-membrane bound.
  • It contains RNA.
  • It takes part in protein formation.

Lava & Magma

  • Magma is the molten rock material deep inside earth՚s crust, while the same magma, when it finds its way to a volcano through fissures and cracks, and comes out of the mouth of the volcano, is referred to as lava.
  • So, magma is deep underground, while lava is the hot mixture of gases and molten rocks that comes out of the volcano.
  • The most notable difference between magma and lava pertains to their location.

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