Location, Time Zone, Population, Area, Landforms and Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

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Q: Why is India’s north-south distance (3214 km) more than the east-west distance (2933), though both latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about 30 degree?

A: This is because the distance between the longitudes decreases near the pole whereas the distances between latitudes remain the same everywhere.

Time Zone

  • There is a general convention to select the standard time zone meridian in multiples of 7o30’ of longitude. There are 24 time zones on earth, each 15 degree apart.

  • USA uses multiple time zone system (7 time zones)

  • India has the longest international boundary with Bangladesh.

  • Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states

    • Gujarat

    • Rajasthan

    • MP

    • CG

    • Jharkhand

    • WB

    • Tripura

    • Mizoram

  • Gujarat has the longest coast line.

  • UP borders the maximum number of states: 8

    • HP

    • Haryana

    • Uttarakhand

    • Rajasthan

    • MP

    • CG

    • Bihar

    • Jharkhand


  • Highest: UP> Maha> Bihar > WB

  • Lowest: Sikkim< Mizoram < Arunachal < Goa


  • Highest: Rajasthan>MP> Maha>>Andhra

  • Lowest: Goa<Sikkim<Tripura<Nagaland<Mizoram


Three Geological divisions:

  • The peninsular block

  • The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains

  • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain

Peninsular block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous).

Six physiographic divisions:

  • The Northern and North-eastern Mountains

  • The Northern Plain

  • The Peninsular Plateau

  • The Indian Desert

  • The Coastal Plains

  • The Islands

Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

  • Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KM

  • Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India.

It can be divided into five sub-divisions:

  • Kashmir (or North-western) Himalayas

  • Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas

  • Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • Arunachal Himalayas

  • Eastern Hills and Mountains

Kashmir Himalayas

  • Ranges: Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal

  • Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen

  • Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)

  • Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri

  • Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif

  • They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.

  • Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.

  • Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.

  • In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns, Jammu dun and Pathankot dun

Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas

  • Lies between rivers Ravi and Kali

  • Drained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga

  • Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.

  • Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand), Shivalik range

  • Pilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Hemkund Sahib and the five famous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)

  • Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt.: Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne, Ranikhet

  • The important distinguishing features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’.

  • Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, Kota

  • Dehradun is the largest of all duns: Length – 35-45 KM, Width: 22-25 KM

  • Inhabited with the Bhotia tribe. They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer and return to the valleys during winters.

Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.

  • Fast flowing rivers such as Tista

  • Peaks: Kanchenjunga

  • Tribe: Lepcha

  • Has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and Tribals from Central India.

  • Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. <India produces about 26 pc of tea in the world: second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports; fourth in the world.>

  • Duar formations are peculiar to this region.

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