Important Facts of Indian History for Competitive Exams Part 3

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  • In the 13th year of his reign, he appointed Dharma Mahamatra and Dharmayukta for the first time for the happiness and peace of his people.

  • Upagupta was a Buddhist monk of Mathura under his influence, Asoka changed his religion and accepted Buddhism.

  • Asoka sent his daughter Sanghmitra and son Mahendra to spread Buddhism in Sri Lanka.

  • In the mini edicts Asoka calls himself a Buddha Shakya.

  • Asoka sent Majjhantik to propagate Buddhism in Kashmir.

  • In 1750, it was Teffenthaler who first explored the Asokan pillars.

  • Asoka’s last edict was found by Beadon in 1915 at Maski.

  • The small edicts of Asoka are of two types. According to Smith, they were written in 259-232 B.C.

  • The first kind of Asokan small pillar edicts are available at Roopnath in Jabalpur district, Sahasaram in Shahabad district of Bihar, Maski, in Raichur district, and Vairat in Rajasthan.

  • The second type of Asokan edicts have been found at Siddhpur (Chitralahug, Mysore) Jatig, Rameshwar and Brahmagiri.

  • The Bhabru edict was found at Bairath near Jaipur in Rajasthan. In this edict seven precepts of Buddhism have been given which Asoka liked most and he desired that the people should read them and make their conduct accordingly. This edict is preserved in Kolkata Museum.

  • Two edicts about Kalinga have been found at Dhauli and Jaugarh. In these, the principles of behaviour with he people of Kalinga and with the frontier people have been outlined.

  • Asokan small edicts have been found at about 15 places.

  • The Erangudi edict was found in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh at a place known as Erangudi.

  • The Maski small edict was found from Maski village of Raichur district of Andhra Pradesh. It contains the name of Asoka.

  • The Rajul Mandgiri edict was found on a mound 20 miles beyond Erangudi in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh.

  • The Gurjara edict has been found from a village named Gurjara in Datia district of Madhya Pradesh. It also mentions the name of Asoka.

  • Ahraura edict was found from a hill of the village Ahraura in Mirzapur district of U.P.

  • Palgoraria edict was found in 1975.

  • The Sannati inscription (edict) has been found in the village Sannati in the district of Gulbarga of Karnatic State.

  • The cave inscription are three in number which have been found in the Barabar hills of Gaya city in Bihar. These refer to the charity performed by the King to the Ajivaks.

  • The language of the Kandahar edict is Greek and Aramaic.

  • The Topara pillar edict has been found from a village named Topara in Haryana. In the course of time Firoz Tughlaq brought it to Delhi where it is kept at Feroz Shah Kotla ground.

  • Rummindei small pillar edict was found from the Tarai of Nepal.

  • Most of Asokan edicts are written in Prakrit language.

  • In Gupta age ships and boats were manufactured in large numbers. Gujarat, Bengal and Tamil Nadu were the main centres of cotton industry.

  • Trade between India and China was carried on before Gupta age, in 2nd century.

  • India had trade relations with eastern, countries. They were called Swarnabhumi (land of gold).

  • Peshawar, Bharuch, Ujjaini, Varanasi, Prayag, Patliputra, Mathura, Vaishali and Tamralipti were trade centres.

  • In west Bharuch and in east, Tamralipti were prominent ports.

  • Gold, silver, bronze, tin, camphor, dates and horses were imported.

  • The collective unit of the people who worked in various industries, were known as ‘Kuliks’.

  • ‘Kulik Nigam’ and ‘Shreshthi Nigam were the unions of wealthy traders. The Kulik Nigam had its own seal which was used in commercial correspondence and the trade-goods.

  • In the Gupta age, India maintained trade relations with Arabia. Horses were imported from Arabia and Iran.

  • The Seals of Kulik have been excavated from the town Meeta near Allahabad.

  • From Vaishali 274 Seals of Sarthwah Kulik Nigam have been excavated prove that it was a great institution of the Gupta age.

  • Trade with China, Japan and Sumatra was carried from the port of Tamralipti.

  • In Gupta age the land tax was known as ‘Udrang’.

  • Kadur and Charpal were the ports situated in Andhra Pradesh.

  • Kaveripattinam and Tondi were the ports of Chola State.

  • Kokai and Saliyar were the ports of Pandya State.

  • Kottayam and Mujris were the ports of Malwa State.

  • Sindhu, Orhoth, Kalyan and Mibor were other main ports for trade.

  • Hiranya was the tax realized in cash. Bhutavat Pratyaya was the tax levied upon the imports from other countries.

  • Haldand was the tax charged on the ploughed land.

  • A definite portion of the produce from agricultural land was charged as the land tax by the State. It was called Bhag tax. Generally it was charged in kind.

  • In the Gupta age, the land was donated only to the Brahmans.

  • The land donated to Brah mans was called Bra hmdeya.

  • The tax free villages of the Brahmans were called Agrahara.

  • In the Gupta age, the Gram Parishads (village councils) were autonomous and free from the State control.

  • The uncultivated land was the property of the king.

  • The women who remained unmarried throughout their life and passed their time in studies were called Brahmavadinis.

  • Taxila, Varanasi and Ujjaini were prominent centres of education.

  • In the Gupta society, intercaste marriages were performed.

  • The slave system was practised in the Gupta age.

  • The joint family system was in vogue in Gupta society.

  • In the women though not as much respected as in Vedic period, yet enjoyed important position in the society of Gupta age.

  • Sheelbhattarika was an educated and worthy woman of the Gupta age.

  • Widow Remarriages were performed in the Gupta age, but some works of the age speak against it. Chandra Gupta II married the widow of Ramgupta, his brother. Her name was Dhruva Swamini.

  • Prostitutes, expert in music and dance, and perfect in sexology were called ‘Ganikas’.

  • The traders and commercial professionals had their ‘Shrenis’ in Gupta age. The Patkar, Tailik (oil traders), Pashan Kottak (stone cutters) were important Shrenis.

  • The author of ‘Swapnavasavaduttam’ was an eminent prose writer.

  • The author of Bhattikavya or Rayan Vadh, was Bhatti, an eminent poet of Gupta age.

  • Bhartrhari wrote ‘Niti Shatak’, Shringar Shatak and Vairagya Shatak which became very famous. Some scholars believe that Bhartrhari is another name for Bhatti.

  • ‘Kuntleshwar Daityam’ is a drama that testifies to the fact that Kalidas belonged to the Gupta age.

  • ‘Abhigyan Shakuntalam’ ‘Meghdoot’ ‘Ritusanhar’ are some of the major works of Kalidas.

  • Kamsutra is a famous book on Sexology written by Vatsyayan.

  • Vaibhashik and Sangh Bhadra were the two Acharyas (teachers) of the Gupta age who wrote the literature of the Vaibhashik sect.