Competitive Exams: National Movement of India 1931 − 1940

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National Movement of India: 1931 to 1940

Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931)

  • Moderate Statesman, Sapru, Jaikar and Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government.
  • The two (government represented by Irwin and INC by Gandhiji) signed a pact on March 5,1931.
  • In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round table conference.
  • The government on its part released the political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along the coast.

Second Round Table Conference (1931)

  • Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet British P. M. Ramsay Macdonald.
  • However, the session was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by Muslims but also by Depressed Classes, Indian Christians and Anglo Indians.

The Communal Award (Aug 16,1932)

  • Announced by Ramsay McDonald. It showed divide and rule policy of the British.
  • Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and even Backward classes.
  • Gandhiji, who was in Yeravada jail at that time, started a fast unto death against it.

Poona Pact (September 25,1932)

  • After the announcement of communal award and subsequent fast of Gandhiji, mass meeting took place almost everywhere.
  • Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, B. R. Ambedkar and M. C. Rajah became active.
  • Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhiji broke his fact on the sixth day (Sept 25,1932) .
  • In this, the idea of separate electorate for the depressed classes was abandoned, but seats reserved to them in the provincial legislature were increased.

Third Round Table Conference (1932)

  • Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison. The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935.

Demand for Pakistan

  • In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslim State within the federation.
  • Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1923.
  • Mohd. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality.
  • Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940.

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