Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pune YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, IITM Pune - Monsoon Mission, Pratyush, Aaditya, SAFAR |VVM

An Autonomous Institute of the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India

To Make IITM a World Centre of Excellence in Basic Research on the Ocean-Atmosphere Climate System required for improvement of Weather and Climate Forecasts


  • To develop outstanding research talent capable of understanding and exploring enlightened and effective Atmospheric sciences.
  • To further the advancement of Research in Ocean-Atmosphere by undertaking relevant scientific programmes.
  • To collaborate with other similar research institutions, in the development and application of climate study.
  • 1962: Institute of Tropical Meteorology (ITM) as department of IMD (Under Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation)
  • 1971: Autonomous IITM by Committee for Organization of Scientific Research (COSR)
  • 1985: Under the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of the Ministry of Science & Technology
  • 2006: Under Ministry of Earth Sciences

HPC, Computer, Library, Information and Other Supporting

  • Seasonal and Extended Range Prediction of Monsoon
  • Science of Climate Change, Variability and Atmospheric Chemistry
  • Clouds physics and Dynamics
  • Advanced Training in Earth System Sciences and Climate
  • The need to study the fundamental atmospheric problems and understand the mechanism of monsoon, weather systems and climate related processes in the tropical region, particularly over the monsoon region, became acute for India in 1950՚s when the country՚s post-Independence economic development program was launched. Considering this urgent need the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) , in its Third Congress, recommended the creation of meteorological research and training institutes in the tropical countries.
  • Sevottam is an assessment improvement framework targeted to improve the quality of services to the citizens. During the last two-three years ten Ministries/Departments of the Central Government have been using the framework for improving their quality-of-service delivery.


It releases Indradhanush Patrika

Director – S. Krishnan - Climate Modelling and Analysis:

  • Global Climate Change & Variability
  • Climate Dynamics pertaining to the Indian region
  • Dynamics & Variability of the Indian/Asian Monsoon
  • Global & Monsoon Hydrological Cycle


SAFAR, Short Range Ensemble Forecast


  • Under the plan scheme Metropolitan Advisories for Cities for Sports, Tourism (Metropolitan Air Quality and Weather Services) , Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) , Govt. of India, has introduced a major national initiative, “System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research” known as “SAFAR” for greater metropolitan cities of India to provide location specific information on air quality in near real time and its forecast 1 - 3 days in advance for the first time in India. It has been combined with the early warning system on weather parameters.
  • The SAFAR system is developed by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, along with ESSO partner institutions namely India Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) . The implementation of SAFAR is made possible with an active collaboration with local municipal corporations and various local educational institutions and governmental agencies in that Metro city.
  • The ultimate objective of the project is to increase awareness among general public regarding the air quality in their city well in advance so that appropriate mitigation measures and systematic action can be taken up for betterment of air quality and related health issues. Its engineers՚ awareness drive by educating public, prompting self-mitigation and also to help develop mitigation strategies for policy makers.


  • Pollutants monitored: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, Ozone, CO, NOx (NO, ) , , BC, Methane , non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) , VOC՚s, Benzene, Mercury
  • Monitored Meteorological Parameters: UV Radiation, Rainfall, Temperature, Humidity, Wind speed, Wind direction, solar radiation
  • The SAFAR observational network of Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) established within city limits represents selected microenvironments of the city including industrial, residential, background/cleaner, urban complex, agricultural zones etc. as per international guidelines which ensures the true representation of city environment.
  • Air Quality indicators are monitored at about 3 m height from the ground with online sophisticated instruments. These instruments are operated round the clock and data is recorded and stored at every 5-minute interval for quality check and further analysis.

Short Range Ensemble Prediction System

Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) Precipitation (based on GEFS)

  • IITM developed world՚s highest resolution Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for short range prediction at 12 km using 21 members of the model. The GEFS prediction system provided probabilistic rainfall for next 10 days. The very high (~12 km) resolution Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) with 21 ensemble members for short range forecast system based on GEFS (T1534) has been put in place by IITM and has been handed over to IMD for operational implementation since 1 June 2018.
  • For the benefit of IMD forecasters, various new model diagnostics and products have been developed and added based on GEFS T1534 forecast Presently the GEFS (12 km) forecast is utilised to develop the block level forecast of rainfall probability for IMD՚s agrimet application.

Extended Range Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon

MISO: monsoon intra-seasonal oscillations (MISOs) with timescales of 30 - 60 days

  • The sub-seasonal or extended range prediction (ERP) refers to a meteorological forecast more than 10 days in advance.
  • Monsoon is derived from an Arabic word that means seasons. The Indian summer monsoon (June-July-August-September; JJAS) , which is also a part of the annually reversing wind system, is one of the most dynamic land-atmosphere-ocean coupled systems over the tropics. Rainfall within the summer monsoon season is mainly punctuated by the northward propagating monsoon intrapersonal oscillations (MISOs) with timescales of 30 - 60 days that manifests as spells of heavy rainfall and periods of quiescent rainfall, instead of a continuous deluge.
  • These spells are termed as ‘active’ and ‘break’ spells respectively, which contribute to the sub-seasonal or intrapersonal variability (ISV) of the Indian summer monsoon. As the socio-economical growth of the Indian subcontinent is strongly interlaced with the summer monsoon rainfall, understanding the complex space – time characteristics of MISO, its realistic simulation and prediction at the extended range have received considerable attention in recent years


Long-Term Objectives

  • To build up a repository and dissemination centre in Environmental Science and Engineering;
  • To gear up state-of-the-art technologies of information acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information of environmental nature; and
  • To support and promote research, development and innovation in environmental information technology.

Short-Term Objectives

  • To provide national environmental information service relevant to present needs and capable of development to meet the future needs of the users, originators, processors and disseminators of information;
  • To build up storage, retrieval and dissemination capabilities with the ultimate objectives of disseminating information speedily to the users;
  • To promote, national and international cooperation and liaison for exchange of environment related information;
  • To promote, support and assist education and personnel training programmes designed to enhance environmental information processing and utilization capabilities;
  • To promote exchange of information amongst developing countries.
  • Environmental information plays a vital role not only in formulating environmental management policies but also in the decision-making process aiming at environmental protection and improvement of environment for sustaining good quality of life for the living beings. Hence, management of environment is key component and thus plays an important role in effecting a balance between the demands and resources available for keeping the environmental quality at a satisfactory level.
  • Realizing the importance of Environmental Information, the Government of India, in December, 1982, established an Environmental Information System (ENVIS) as a plan programme, focus of which is to collect, collate, store, retrieve and disseminate all information to varying users, including decision-makers, researchers, academicians, policy planners and research scientists, etc.

Air Quality Forecast (AQ-EWS)

Developed by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) , Pune, India Meteorological Department, National Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) , Boulder, USA.

Winter Fog Experiment (WiFEX)

The warning system consists of

  • Real-time observations of air quality over Delhi region and details about natural aerosols like dust (from dust storms) and particulate matter using different satellite data sets.
  • Predictions of air pollutants from two different air quality prediction systems based on state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry transport models
  • Warning Messages and Alerts and Bulletins.

Winter Fog Experiment (WiFEX)

  • Fog is a visible mass consisting of cloud water droplets suspended in the air or near the Earth՚s surface. The presence of heavy and extended period fog in the northern regions of India is one of the major weather hazards, impacting aviation, road transportation, economy and public life in the world՚s most densely populated region. Maximum fog occurrence over Northwest India is about 48 days (visibility < 1000 m) per year and occurs mostly during the December-February time period. All India՚s annual morning poor visibility days (PVD < 4 km) have increased from 6.7 to 27.3 % days. Recent studies on fog in India during the past 10 - 15 years have prompted significant socio-economic concern due to an increase in frequency, persistence, and intensity of fog occurrence over the northern parts of the country. Land-use changes and increasing pollution in the region are responsible for growing Fog occurrence.
  • The objectives of the Winter Fog Experiment (WIFEX) are to develop better now-casting (next 6 hours) and forecasting of winter fog on various time and spatial scales and help reduce its adverse impact on aviation, transportation and economy, and loss of human life due to accidents. Presently, the airport fog forecast system at real-time is based upon mainly meteorological parameters alone covering synoptic- Climatological checklist and empirical methods. We need a reliable Dynamical based fog forecasting system for Fog occurrence by incorporating all fog formation parameters covering meteorological, fog Micro-physics, radiational, thermodynamical and other boundary layer processes.


CCCR, Monsoon Mission Ets
  • DESK: DESK will act for developing skill for meeting the research and application requirements of MoES. The conventional university education in earth sciences requires further bridging of gaps between the various disciplines in order to develop skills among students to readily undertake the research and operational objectives of MoES centers and institutes. DESK will act as a centralized training facility through pooling of resources, infrastructure and faculties across all MoES institutes and academic units.
  • Organize courses (of short, medium and intermediate duration) for training at basic as well as advanced level for scientists at all levels focusing on the research objectives of MoES institutions.
  • Organize and conduct the MoES Research Fellow Program (MRFP) with nationwide selection process, training for one-to-two semesters duration, allotment of research fellows to various MoES institutes.
  • Organize course (of short, medium duration) on specific or targeted areas for skilled manpower development within and outside MoES by conducting short term schools and workshops.

Centre for Climate Change Research

Proposal for a Centre for Climate Change Research was submitted to the Ministry of Earth Sciences. The proposal received approval on 7th January 2009 under the Program on Global and Regional Climate Change as one of the schemes of the 11th Five Year Plan.

  • Objective: Development of a coupled modelling system for Climate Change Studies
  • Earth System Model Development: Developed an Earth System Model (IITM-ESM) to address the long-term critical need in India for a climate model that would provide reliable future projections of monsoon rainfall.
  • Climate Change Science and Applications: Generated an ensemble of high-resolution downscaled projections of regional climate and monsoon until 2100 for the IPCC climate scenarios, which are useful for climate impact assessment studies and for quantifying uncertainties in the regional projections.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate: Understanding the role of trace gases and aerosol chemistry in radiative forcing and regional climate change, and to quantify the impact of trace gases transported from the boundary layer to the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) .
  • Paleoclimate: Features of past monsoon climatic variations based on climate reconstructions derived from high resolution proxies through dendroclimatic studies, stable isotope analysis of climate archives (e. g. , tree rings, corals, speleothems etc.) .
  • MetFlux India: The MetFlux India team in CCCR monitor greenhouse gases (GHG) concentration variations over Indian region by in situ measurements and generate observations of GHG fluxes over a network of Indian stations covering different ecosystems and identify the sources and sinks of GHG.

Objectives of CCCR

  • To develop high resolution climate models or Earth System Models (ESM) to address scientific questions on attribution and projection of regional climate change.
  • To use regional climate models to produce projections of Indian monsoon under different scenarios and assess the uncertainty in these projections.
  • To study Monsoon Variability and Predictability by identifying regional and global climate drivers for monsoon inter-annual variability and to identify useful predictors and to understand the dynamics of dry and wet epochs of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) and their relation to the ENSO and other global coupled phenomenon.
  • To document chief features of regional monsoon climate change based on climate reconstructions derived from high resolution proxies and to understand the long-term monsoon climate variability over the Asian region.
  • To build in-house capacity in global and regional climate Modeling to address all issues concerning the science of regional climate change with particular emphasis on the South Asian monsoon system.
  • To generate reliable climate inputs for impact assessments.
  • To develop hydrological model for large-scale estimation of run-off and soil moisture using satellite derived data.
  • To understand the role of aerosol loading over the Indian region in monsoon interannual variability and its possible implications on the Indian Monsoon.
  • To study and understand the role of aerosol chemistry (both organic and inorganic ionic species) in radiative forcing and regional climate change.

Short Term Climate Variability and Prediction

  • To conduct basic research on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) variability and teleconnections.
  • To continue ongoing efforts in identifying regional and global climate drivers for monsoon interannual variability.
  • To develop regional climate data products for various stakeholders.
  • To quantify the various aspects of climate change and climate variability over south Asian countries, with emphasis on the southwest and northeast monsoons.
  • To develop different forecast models for climatic parameters over India.
  • To study the impact of long-term ocean variability on decadal monsoon variations.
  • Investigate the processes associated with climate variability using observations and models.
  • Understand the role of low-frequency feedbacks involving land-atmosphere interactions relevant to the Indian monsoon variability.
  • Identifying predictors for monsoon variability using both observations and models.
  • To understand the role of aerosol loading over the Indian region in monsoon interannual variability.
  • Predictability of Indian summer monsoon is limited by the ‘climate noise’ or ‘internal’ interannual variability (IAV) , generated in the region. In order to improve the prediction skill, it is important to understand the physical processes responsible for the ‘climate noise’ . It is proposed to unravel the physical processes responsible for ‘internal’ IAV of monsoon In order to improve the forecast models achieving the limit on potential predictability of seasonal mean monsoon, it is important to isolate and quantify the contribution from different climate drivers like ENSO, IOD, PDO, AMO, etc. in relation to the ‘internal’ IAV of the monsoon.
  • Development of web portal RAINFO and TEMPINFO: A web portal ‘RAINFO and TEMPINFO’ is being developed which will provide all the information on rainfall and temperature variability over a region in one click.

Metropolitan Air Quality and Weather Forecasting Services

  • Development of Early warning system to predict Air Quality and Weather for Indian metropolitan cities namely- “SAFAR” (System of Air quality and Weather Forecasting and Research) . To investigate the role of air pollution and its impact on Human Health and Crop Yield.
  • Development of Chemical-transport modelling capability to understand the linkages of atmospheric Chemistry with weather and climate.
  • Development of improved high-resolution gridded national emission inventories.
  • Establishment of MAPAN (Modeling Air Pollution and Networking) – A national monitoring Network for atmospheric chemical parameters.
  • Investigating the role of carbonaceous species (black carbon, organic carbon, brown carbon, etc.) .
  • SAFAR has been indigenously conceived, developed and commissioned by IITM, Pune. SAFAR is operational in Delhi, Pune, Mumbai and soon will be made operational soon in Ahmedabad and provides site-specific detailed customized meteorological and air quality products and spreads awareness through large public display digital boards, News frames, toll-free telephones, SMS services, web portal and IVRS.
  • For Indian domain, a national network of “Modeling Air Pollution and Networking (MAPAN) ” consisting of about 15 air quality and weather monitoring stations are setup all over India. MAPAN provides baseline data for broad input fields to regional air quality model for Indian domain, nested domain coarser resolution for SAFAR and investigate the role of anthropogenic versus long-range transport.
  • This group continues to quantify the impact of chemical emissions on the distribution of trace gases regionally and also on other regions of the globe along with timing and location of long-range pollution transport events using 3-D global coupled Modeling systems. Also, focuses on quantifying the impact of air quality on persistent winter fog formation, duration and dissipation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains including Delhi and variability of carbonadoes aerosols (black carbon and organic carbon) in glaciers.

Physics and Dynamics of Tropical Clouds (PDTC)

This project has been subdivided in four sub-projects:

Cloud and Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX)

High Altitude Cloud Physics Laboratory (HACPL)

Thunderstorm Dynamics

Radar and Satellite Meteorology

Conducted CAIPEEX Scientific Cloud Seeding Experiment 2018

  • To study the cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions using observations and simulations.
  • To formulate a scientific basis and protocol to enhance rain formation and rain enhancement using the recent cloud seeding technologies and the state-of-the-art instrumentation.
  • To carry out collocated airborne and integrated ground-based observations to understand
    • the microphysical changes in the clouds as a result of changes in aerosol particles,
    • microphysical and dynamical controls on the rain formation,
    • how physical and chemical properties of aerosols may impact radiative forcing and cloud formation,
    • how direct and indirect effect of aerosols may be quantified, and
    • utilization of observations in formulating process level parameterization for monsoon clouds,
    • understand the fog layer microphysics and microscale processes to understand fog formation, evolution and dissipation.
  • To Study the dynamical, microphysical and electrical characteristics of thunderstorms, and their interactions with each other over the Indian region (which can help in improving their prediction) .
  • To study the interaction of thunderclouds with environmental conditions.
  • To understand the effect of electrical forces on microphysical characteristics of thunderstorm.
  • To study boundary layer characteristics by making observation with micrometeorological tower.
  • To establish India՚s first High-Altitude Cloud Physics Laboratory with state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure aerosol, cloud, precipitation and environmental parameters for studying the effect of aerosols on cloud microphysics and in-turn precipitation.
  • To understand several of the micro physical and dynamical processes involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions by simultaneously observing them through long-term surface observations.
  • To investigate
    • secondary organic aerosol formation and their effect on cloud microphysics, and
    • aerosol-CCN closure using aerosol chemistry and hygroscopicity measurements.
  • To investigate the spatial distribution of cloud and precipitation systems over the Western Ghats and surrounding regions using polarimetric weather radars and to validate radar reflectivity and rainfall measurements using network of Optical Rain Gauge (ORG) and Disdrometer.
  • Retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using polarimetric Ka-band radar.
  • To study the impact of assimilation of Doppler and polarimetric radar products into numerical meso-scale models.
  • To improve the understanding of cloud, precipitation systems and regional hydrological cycle through space borne observations.
  • To contribute towards the national space programme in the areas of retrieval of scientific products, validation and through value addition.

High Performance Computing System

  • To establish a petaflops-scale HPC facility at MoES institutes to cater the needs of modeling activities of Monsoon Mission, Climate Change Research and National Training Centre and other programs of the Institute, and also to share the facility with other groups in the country.
  • To establish, update and maintain an extensive database required for modeling and observational studies.
  • To provide assistance in processing the data.
  • To provide programming and software support for model improvement.
  • To maintain the facility by providing the necessary supporting infrastructure such as UPS, cooling system, Power and Generator backup. Significant investment has to be planned for maintaining the Community Facility.
  • PRATYUSH: With this, India will now occupy the fourth position, next only to United Kingdom, Japan and the US in terms of dedicated capacity for HPC resources for weather and climate purposes. The UK leads with a capacity of 20.4 Petaflop, followed by Japan with 20 Petaflop and USA with 10.7 Petaflop. India had till now occupied the eighth position with a capacity of 1 Petaflop. With the new system, it has now jumped over Korea (4.8 Petaflop) , France (4.4 Petaflop) and China (2.6 Petaflop) . A petaflop is the ability of a computer to execute one quadrillion floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) .
  • Of the 6.8 Petaflop, four Petaflop has been set up at IITM and the balance 2.8 Petaflop at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (NCMRWF) at Noida.
  • Best weather/climate prediction system in terms of accuracy/skill for monsoon climate.
  • Operational forecasts at a very high resolution of 3 km at regional scale and 12 km at global scale for weather forecasts at par with any other leading weather/climate forecast center in the world.
  • Fastest Tsunami alert/advisory to the stakeholders in Asia/Pacific region.
  • Advisories on Potential fishing Zones, operational ocean wave/weather watch forecasts and air quality forecasts, climate projections are provided regularly to the citizens of India.


  • ADITYA is 790 + TeraFlops High Performance Computing System IBM iDataPlex cluster, which features 38,144 Intel Sandy Bridge processors and 149 TB of memory.
  • AADITYA is an IBM iDataPlex Supercomputer. The login and compute nodes are populated with two Intel Sandy Bridge 8-core processors. AADITYA uses the FDR 10 InfiniBand interconnect in a Fat Tree configuration as its high-speed network for MPI messages and IO traffic. AADITYA uses IBM՚s General Parallel File System (GPFS) to manage its parallel file system. AADITYA has 2,384 compute nodes that share memory only on the node; memory is not shared across the nodes. Each compute node has two 8-core processors (16 cores) with its own Red Hat Enterprise Linux OS, sharing 64 GBytes of memory, with no user-accessible swap space. AADITYA is rated at 800 peak TFLOPS and has 6 PBytes (formatted) of disk storage.
  • AADITYA is intended to be used as a batch-scheduled HPC system. Its login nodes are not to be used for large computational (memory, IO, long executions) work. All executions that require large amounts of system resources must be sent to the compute nodes by batch job submission.

National Facility for Airborne Research

  • Procurement of an Instrumented Aircraft System (IAS) as a national facility for airborne atmospheric research.
  • To make simultaneous measurements of aerosols, trace gases, cloud microphysics and large-scale meteorological parameters at high temporal resolution and at different altitudes in different seasons over the Indian sub-continent.
  • To study cloud-aerosol interactions and the changes in precipitation processes over different parts of the Indian monsoon region.
  • To understand the interactions between clouds and large-scale environment using simultaneous measurements of clouds and large-scale meteorological parameters at high temporal resolution and using them in cloud resolving models.
  • Aerosol and radiative effects and aerosol-radiation closure studies. Parameterization schemes for monsoon clouds using aerosol, cloud microphysical and dynamical data generated
  • The research community in this country strongly felt a need for long term airborne measurements in respect of Aerosol sampling, measurement of cloud properties, cloud physics, Convective Tropical Convergence Zone (CTCZ) , atmospheric chemistry, etc. to address all relevant scientific issues for improving the treatment of rain making processes in the monsoon environment in particular and other cloud-aerosol-radiative feedback mechanisms associated with the climate variability and change over India in times to come.
  • The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) is in the process of procuring a research aircraft as the National Facility for Airborne Research (NFAR) in the 12th five-year plan (2012 - 17) and it will be managed by IITM, Pune. This aircraft will be used for all airborne atmospheric research in the country and is planned to be positioned at Aurangabad. Depending on the research objectives, the aircraft operations will be conducted from different bases in the country. The research aircraft will carry several state-of-the-art sophisticated scientific instruments. At Aurangabad airport, facilities for maintenance and repair of aircraft, development, installation, calibration and modifications of scientific instruments onboard will be made available in the hangar.
  • Cloud Aerosol Interaction studies
  • Direct -Indirect aerosol effect
  • Air Pollution studies- Mega cities/Urban
  • Radiation studies
  • Coastal pollution studies
  • Urban visibility studies
  • Flood/Forestry/City modelling
  • Cloud microphysics and precipitation process studies

Monsoon Mission

  • To build a working partnership between the academic and R&D Organisations both national and international, and the MoES to improve the operational monsoon forecast skill over the country.
  • To setup a state-of-the-art dynamical modelling frame work for improving prediction skill of ‘Seasonal and Extended range predictions’ and ‘Short and Medium range (up to two weeks) predictions’ .
  • Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) , Government of India launched ‘National Monsoon Mission’ (NMM) in 2012 with a vision to develop a state-of-the-art dynamical prediction system for monsoon rainfall on different time scales.
  • To develop a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-land modelling system for dynamical Prediction on Extended range and seasonal time scales and to improve the prediction skill.
  • Development of Data assimilation system for Climate Forecast System (CFS)
  • To improve parameterisation schemes in the coupled ocean-atmosphere models.
  • To study and understand the monsoon variability over different spatio-temporal scales.
  • To coordinate the working partnership amongst the ESSO-MoES organisations and various national and international R&D and academic institutions.
  • First phase of monsoon mission completed successfully in 2017 and handed over the seasonal and extended range prediction system developed to India meteorological Department (IMD) for operational use.
  • Second phase of monsoon mission started by October 2017. The second phase focuses on both model development and application development for agriculture, hydrology, energy etc. sectors.

American & Unified Model

  • The American model called “Climate Forecast System” (CFS) developed by National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) , NOAA National Weather Service, USA. CFS is a coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system that combine data from ocean, atmosphere and land for providing long range forecasting (seasonal prediction of Indian Monsoon) ; [Model developments on CFS will be implemented by IITM, with atmospheric initial conditions from NCMRWF and Ocean initial conditions from INCOIS]
  • The Unified Model (UM) , developed by the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) , UK. This model will be utilized for short to medium range prediction [and the Model developments on UKMO will be implemented by NCMRWF, in association with IMD.]
    • Seasonal Prediction
    • Extended Range Prediction
    • Parameterisation of Physical Processes and Analysis