Biogeographical Regionalization YouTube Lecture Handouts Part 1

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Biogeographic Regionalization: Holdridge, Rapoport, MacArthur & Wilson, Pielou, Muller, Morrone

Biogeographical Classification

  • Major Classifications
  • Terrestrial Plants
  • Terrestrial Animals
  • Aquatic Plants & Animals


Classification of Biogeographic Regionalization

Key Idea

  • Hierarchical System
  • Initially based on intuition
  • Later based on endemic species


  • Arrangement
  • Summarize
  • Condense

Modern biogeographic research

It includes ideas and information from many fields from the physiological and ecological constraints on organismal distribution to geological and climatological occurrences operating at global spatial scales and evolutionary time frames.

Holdridge՚s Life Zone Classification

  • Life Zone = Plants + Animals share unique characteristics – by Merriam in 1889
  • 3 Factors Considered

Vavilov Geneceter, Ronald Good (Plant) & Wallace՚s (Animal) Classification

Classification & Global Distribution of Plants and Animals - Vavilov՚s Genecenters

MacArthur and Wilson՚s Method

  • Island geography
  • Colonize uninhabited island
  • No Phylogenetic analysis

Rapoport՚s Classification

3 regions:

  • Holoarctic
  • Holotropical
  • Holantractic

Stevens – Rapoport՚s rule

Pielou՚s Classification

  • Nearctic
  • Paleotropical
  • Neotropical
  • Ethiopian
  • Oriental
  • Australasian
  • Oceanian
  • Antarctic
Classification & Global Distribution of Plants

Muller՚s Classification

  • 5 Regions
  • 5 Transition Zones

Morrone՚s Classification

  • Historical changes
  • 3 kingdoms and 12 regions

Complete details on biogeographical regionalization and study material can be fetched at: Examrace IAS Mains Geography Optional Series (Includes 2017 Contemporary Topics)