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COP22 on UNFCC (Estb. 1994) – 197 Nations

Rules to operationalize Paris Summit

Advance Work on Pre-2020

COP – Supreme governing body of UNFCC

Marrakesh, Morocco

  • COP22: 22nd session of Conference of the Parties to UNFCC

  • CMP12: 12th session of Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol

  • CMA1: 1st session of Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement

Adopted Marrakech Action Proclamation for Our Climate & Sustainable Development

  • Respond to global warming

  • Paris Agreement & its reflection of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities.

  • Countries affirm commitment to full implementation of Paris Agreement

  • Nations demanded solidarity with those countries most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

  • Need to support efforts for adaptive capacity, to strengthen resilience and to reduce vulnerability of most vulnerable countries.

  • Increase in the volume, flow and access to finance for climate projects

  • Developed Country Parties, reaffirm $100 billion mobilization goal.

  • Nations parties to Kyoto Protocol (which does not include US) should ratify of the Doha Amendment, with its focus on pre-2020 action.

  • Cooperation among the countries to close the gap between current emissions trajectories.

  • Eradicate poverty, ensure food security and take stringent action to deal with climate change challenges in agriculture.

  • Build on the post-Paris momentum, and move forward to reduce GHG emissions and support UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Pre-2020 Ideas

  • Climate actions: Based on principles of equity and Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) and climate justice.

  • Recognized principle of differentiation between developed and developing countries

  • Focus on operationalizing rules pertaining to Adaptation, Mitigation, Finance, Technology transfer, capacity-building and transparency frameworks.

  • Need for “Marrakech Action Proclamation for our climate and sustainable development”

  • Initiated work on Adaptation Fund to serve the Paris Agreement.

  • Mobilization of $ 100 billion per year and other support to developing countries

  • Forward movement in the climate actions & implementation

  • Develop the Rule Book for Paris Agreement

Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR–RC)

  • Different capabilities and differing responsibilities of individual countries in addressing climate change

  • Laid under 1992 UNFCC treaty

  • Annex-I: Developed Nations, Greater role in mitigation

  • Non-Annex I: Developing Nations

  • 1997 Kyoto Protocol: Annex classifications were codified & Annex I country emissions reductions were legally bound

  • 2011 Durban: Allow countries to individually determine their “contribution” to address GHG emissions. It is “applicable to all,” and approaches differentiation by bottom–up scheme

  • 2014 Lima: CBDR-DC in light of different national circumstances

India: Afforestation, REDD+ & Sustainable Transport

  • Forests are important, India – 25% forests, major sink of CO2 & offset 12% GHG emissions

  • REDD+ (Reducing Emissions by Deforestation and Degradation): UN’s Paris Agreement, 2015

  • Government asked forestry sector to meet its goal to create 2.5-3.0 billion tons of additional carbon sinks as per the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

  • Sustainable transport solutions – Low Carbon initiatives- Railway electrification through renewable sources of energy, with potential reduction of 138 MT of CO2 by 2030.

  • 12 Himalayan States on climate change – Himalayas provide water to 1.3 billion people in Asia - G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development at Almora

COP 21 – 196 Parties

  • Adopted the Paris Agreement

  • Strengthen global response to the threat of climate change by keeping the global temperature rise this century well below 20C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.50C

  • US, India, China and other countries had pledged to curb emissions under the Paris deal by moving to renewable energy sources.

  • Donald Trump aims to boost oil, gas and coal and “cancel” the Paris Agreement.

Doha Amendments

  • Made to Kyoto Protocol in 2012

  • Make cut in GHG by 2020 by developed nations

  • Initially Kyoto assigned cuts till 2012

  • Pressure by developing countries

  • After 2022, Paris Agreement – no legal binding and each country will decide its own action to fight climate change

As part of Intended Nationally Determined contributions, India government through additional forest and tree cover has resolved to create an additional carbon sink (in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent) by year 2030 to the extent of

(a) 3.5 to 4 billion tons

(b) 2.5 to 3 billion tons

(c)1.5 to 2 billion tons

(d) 1 to 1.5 billion tons

As percentage of Carbon dioxide emissions India stands at which position?

(A) 1st

(B) 3rd

(C) 4th

(D) 5th

  • Impact of Withdrawal of America from Paris Agreement?

  • Explain climate change with special reference to Paris Summit. Discuss the objectives and agenda for the Paris Summit?

  • Explain India’s Efforts in Marrakesh Proclamation?

  • Environmental preservation and globalization are conflicting requirements? Critically Examine.