Conservation of Biodiversity – In-Situ & Ex-Situ YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Insitu & Exsitu Conservation; Topological and Non-Topological Conservation In-Situ & Ex-Situ Conservation; Topological and Non-Topological Conservation
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Strategies of Conservation

  • Protect threatened species

  • Conserve possible varieties

  • Conserve wild relatives

  • Habitat for feeding/breeding/resting

  • Life supporting system of water and soil

  • Enact wildlife protection laws

  • Preserve ecosystem on priority basis

  • Development of reserves

  • Reduce pollution

  • Public awareness

In India

  • Wildlife Institute of India – Dehradun

  • Indian Institute of Forest Management – Bhopal

  • Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History – Coimbatore

Image of Wildlife Institute of India

Image of Wildlife Institute of India

Image of Wildlife Institute of India

Topological & Non-Topological Conservation

Topological Conservation - shape and structure of networks of interacting organisms in ecological systems

In-Situ Conservation

Protect whole ecosystem at all levels to protect threatened species (save entire forest to save tiger)

Hot Spots – High endemism & high species richness (in India – Western Ghats (Agasthyamalai hills, Silent valley, Amambalam reserve) & Sri Lanka, Indo-Burma (NE India) - angiosperms, Sundalands (Nicobar Is.) & Himalaya – (dicot species) – cover less than 2% area with 44% species – if conserved extinction with decline by 30%

👌 4 factors that determine hotspots

  • Degree of endemism

  • Degree of exploitation

  • Degree of threat to habitat due to degradation and fragmentation

  • Number of species or species diversity

Protected Areas – biological diversity along with natural and cultural resource is protected - worldwide 37,000 areas with India having around 651 (4.7% compared to 10% internationally)

Maintain diversity, native population, resilience in species and exotic species

👌 National Parks – by government and for betterment of wildlife –cultivation, grazing, forestry not allowed; private ownership not allowed, boundary is demarcated – around 100 in India covering 1.1% area – Some as heritage sites like Kaziranga, Keoladeo, Manas

👌 Sanctuaries – tracts of land where fauna takes refuge without being hunted – forest activity, grazing and cultivation is permitted; private ownership is allowed but boundary is not well demarcated

Biosphere Reserves – preserve genetic diversity by protecting wild population, tribals and domestication – initiated in 175 under MAB (UNESCO) – India has 18 of 669 in world (2016)

4 of these are part of heritage sites – Nanda Devi, Sunderbans, Niligiris and Gulf of Mannar (also as national parks)

👌 3 zones:

  • Core – no human activity, undisturbed and legally protected

  • Buffer – limited human activity for research and education

  • Transition (Manipulation) – outermost or periphery – settlement, cropping, recreation

Aim – restoration, conservation, development, monitoring, education and research

MAB (Man & Biosphere) Program started in 1971 & in India in 1986 – human environment, impact of human interference, conservation strategies and pollution

Ramsar Sites

📝 Wetlands – Low lying marshy areas filled with rain due to rain off

1st international convention as held in Ramsar, Iran in 1971

  • Help to recharge

  • Recharge groundwater

  • Protection from floods

  • Source of siltation and purification

  • Home for aquatic biota

  • Residence to native and migratory birds

Fresh water wetlands over land & saltwater over estuaries and mangroves

Sacred Forests – temples built by tribals in deodar forest in Kumaon; Jaintia & Khasi in Meghalaya; Sarguja, Chanda & Bastar in Chattisgarh; Aravallis in Rajasthan

Aquatic sacred areas – Khecheopalri (Sikkim)

Bishnois protect Prosopis cineraria & Black Buck

Ex-Situ Conservation

Conservation of plants and animals outside their natural homes

Offsite Collections - 1500 botanical gardens and 800 zoological gardens – captive breeding program (species with less number of individuals – when number increases they are released in wild) – restock depleted population, reintroduce species in wild and restore degraded habitats

Gene Banks – stock of viable seeds, live growing plants, tissue culture and frozen germplasm

  • Seed banks – orthodox seeds (tolerate reduction in moisture, low anaerobic conditions & low temperature for prolonged period) and recalcitrant seeds (killed on reduction of moisture or temperature like jackfruit, cocoa, tea and coconut)

  • Orchards – Plants with recalcitrant seeds are grown in orchards where all possible strains are maintained – litchi, oil palm

  • Tissue Culture – callus, embryoid, pollen grain culture, shoot tip culture for seedless plants, recalcitrant seeds, variable seed progeny or clones to be maintained – banana, potato

  • 👌 Cryopreservation – preservation at -196 (liquid nitrogen)

International Efforts

1. Earth Summit – Agenda 21 📹

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development
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2. Environmental Conventions 📹

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 30 Environmental Conventions & Agreements in 15 minutes (Besides Earth Summit) 30 Environmental Conventions & Agreements in 15 Minutes (Besides Earth Summit)
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3. IUCN 📹

Watch video lecture on YouTube: IUCN and Red Data List - Knowing about Biodiversity IUCN and Red Data List - Knowing About Biodiversity
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Organizations – Greenpeace (NGO), CITES, WWF

Conservation in India

  • Origin & natural home of 167 cultivated species

  • Home to animal species like Zebu, Water Buffalo, Camel

  • Bamboo and tree cotton originated in India

  • Secondary home to animals like sheep, goat, horse & plants like maize, potato and tobacco

  • In-Situ managed by Ministry of Environment and Forest

  • Joint Forest Management is practiced in India

  • Ex-situ managed by National Bureau of Plants, Animals & Fish Genetic Resources

  • International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Hyderabad is conserving germplasm of groundnut, pigeon pea, chick pea, pearl millet and sorghum

  • 3rd December – World Conservation Day

  • 29th December – Biological Diversity Day