Coordinate System Youtube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Coordinate System & Time Calculations - Fundamentals of Geography Coordinate System & Time Calculations - Fundamentals of Geography
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Directions, Coordinate System & Time Zones

Agenda

  • Understanding directions

  • Coordinate system and degree

  • Latitude and Longitude

  • Time and Date Delineation

To download sample questions and notes visit www.doorsteptutor.com

Direction on a Map

  • Why draw maps with north at the top?

  • Standard convention.

  • Compasses are made to measure to the magnetic north pole of the Earth.

    Image of Direction On A Map

    Image of Direction on a Map

    Image of Direction On A Map

Finding the North?

  • Left hand to west

  • Right hand to east

  • Face towards north

North on the Map

  • Magnetic north is measured by a compass.

  • Grid north follows the grid lines of the coordinate system the map is made on.

  • True north corresponds to the Earth’s axis, the North Pole.

    Image of North On The Map

    Image of North on the Map

    Image of North On The Map

Magnetic Declination

  • Difference or angle between magnetic north and true north

  • Topographic map depicts difference

Measure Direction on a Map

  • Use protractor or compass to measure degrees or angle from north line

  • Both measure use circle of 360 degrees

    Image of Measure Direction On A Map

    Image of Measure Direction on a Map

    Image of Measure Direction On A Map

Cartesian Coordinate System

Image of Cartesian Coordinate System

Image of Cartesian Coordinate System

Image of Cartesian Coordinate System

Map Grid

Image of Map Grid

Image of Map Grid

Image of Map Grid

  • Imaginary lines crossing the globe

  • Meridian lines or longitude are drawn north-south

  • Parallel lines or latitudes are drawn east-west

  • Coordinate point is intersection of latitude and longitude

Coordinate Systems

Two common coordinate systems are:

  • Geographic coordinate system

  • Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

Geographic Coordinate System

  • Latitude lines run east-west and are parallel.

  • Longitude lines run north-south & are called meridians.

  • Lines are numbered in degrees, minutes and seconds similar to a clock.

  • Degrees is used as measurement tool because angles are always measured in degrees.

Latitude & Longitude

Illustrating Latitude and Longitude

Illustrating Latitude and Longitude

Illustrating Latitude and Longitude

Latitude-Longitude

Latitudes and Longitudes on Earth

Latitudes and Longitudes on Earth

Latitudes and Longitudes on Earth

Understanding Terms

  • Each degree is divided into 60 minutes

  • Each minute is divided into 60 seconds

  • Holds true for both latitude and longitude

  • Latitude: Distance from equator along Y axis

  • Longitude: Distance from prime meridian along X axis – total 360 meridians (180 east and 180 west of prime meridian)

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

  • UTM lines are straight on global map

  • UTM is a type of projection, calculated to make a flat map of the round Earth.

  • UTM zones are numbered east to west and lettered north to south.

  • Each zone is equivalent to 6o and is measured in meters.

UTM

Image of Universal Transverse Mercator System

Image of Universal Transverse Mercator System

Image of Universal Transverse Mercator System

Problem 1: Find Out Location on Map?

Image of Problem 1: Find out location on Map

Image of Problem 1: Find Out Location on Map

Image of Problem 1: Find out location on Map

Problem 2: Basics of Time

  • Problem: If it is noon where you are, would it be before or after noon for someone that is east of you?

    After noon

  • Recall, the sun rises in the east and sets in the west

    • As you look down from the north pole, the earth would rotate counterclockwise

    • If the sun is just beginning to rise in California, then the sun would be near noon in New York, so…

    • As you travel east, time becomes later

Time Zone

  • Earth is divided into 24 time zones!

    because the Earth Rotates

  • 1 Time zone for every 150 of Longitude

    • The Earth Spins 360 0 in 24 hours

    • hours

    • Or longitude is 4 minutes

  • We measure from Prime Meridian in Greenwich England

  • Every to the East = +1 Hour

  • Every to the West = - 1 Hour

Greenwich, England is Initiation Point for Time Zones

World rotates west to east (counterclockwise), so time zones to the east are ahead of the those time zones to the west

Image of Greenwich, England Is Initiation Point For Time Zones

Image of Greenwich, England is Initiation Point for Time Zones

Image of Greenwich, England Is Initiation Point For Time Zones

Problem 3 – Time Zone

How many hours difference is there between Tokyo?

  • So the difference is

  • Since one hour is 150 longitude

  • So it is hours.

  • Now Tokyo is east of Rome, so it is 8 hours later in Tokyo.

International Date Line

  • Located in mid-Pacific Ocean near 180° longitude.

  • Crossing IDL from east to west, it’s the next day (+1 day)

  • Crossing IDL from west to east, it’s the previous day (-1 day)

    Image of International Date Line

    Image of International Date Line

    Image of International Date Line

Problem 4 - IDL

  • It is 9 AM Saturday in California what time is it in Australia ?

  • So, it is per hour = 7 hours

  • So total time difference is 7 hours, since travelling east to west, time becomes earlier it is 7 hours before, i.e., 2 AM

  • Also you are crossing IDT east to west, so it becomes next day, therefore time in Australia is 2 AM Sunday

Daylight Savings Time

  • Used mainly in USA to add an “extra” hour of daylight in the afternoon during spring/summer

  • “Spring forward and Fall back”

Problem 5 - Sunrise/Sunset Time Corrections

  • If sunset in Winnipeg what is the time for sunset in Manitoba

  • Difference is

  • longitude is 4 minutes

  • longitude is minutes

  • So, it is 32 minutes late, i.e., 5:25 PM +32 minutes = 5:57 PM

Time Zones - World Map

Image of Time Zones - World Map

Image of Time Zones - World Map

Image of Time Zones - World Map

Jet Lag

  • Medical phenomena that occurs due to crossing the various time zones

  • Characterized by extreme fatigue, disorientation and loss of appetite.

  • Sleep is seen as one of the best cures for jet lag, as is exposure to sunlight.

  • It is considered that it takes 1 day per time zone to recover from jet lag.