Goh Cheng Leong: Chapter 15 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 15: Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate (Physical and Human Geography)

Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 15: Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate (Physical and Human Geography)

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Certificate Physical & Human Geography Goh Cheng Leong

Chapter 15: Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Equatorial Region

  • Congo, Amazon, Malaysia, East Indies

  • Trade Wind – Modified – Monsoonal influence

  • Temperature: Uniformity

  • How Temperature is moderated?

  • Precipitation: 60-100 inch – maximum after equinox & least in solistice


  • Convectional Rainfall – Afternoon (one afternoon is equal to entire year rainfall in desert)

  • Orographic or relief rainfall

  • Cyclonic rainfall – convergence of air in Doldrums


  • Variety: Evergreen hardwood like mahogany, ebony; small palm trees; climbing lianas – epiphytic or parasitic; ferns, orchids and lalangs

  • Distinct Layer: thick canopy, struggle for sunlight

  • Multiple Species: No pure strand; Malaysia – 200 species; commercial exploitation is hard; hardwood don’t float on water and haulage expensive (so tropical nations are timber importers)

  • Forest Clearings: lumbering & shifting cultivation – belukar in Mayasia (secondary forest, less trees and dense undergrowth)

Life & Development

  • Amazon: Indian Tribes gather wild rubber

  • Congo: Pygmies gather nuts

  • Mayasia: Orang Asli – cane products

Factors Affecting Development

  • Climate: high heat & humidity; sun-stroke; perspire and lose energy; malaria & yellow fever

  • Bacteria & insect pests: injurious to crops, diseases; plague

  • Jungle hinders development: Lalang (tall grass) & thick undergrowth choke crops – maintain infrastructure at high cost, Congo and Borneo without modern communication lines

  • Deterioration of tropical soil:

  • Difficult lumbering & livestock farming:

Developed by: