Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 18 – Hot Desert & Mid-latitude Desert Climate YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

  • Scanty Rainfall

  • Hot Climate

  • Cause of aridity??

  • Offshore trade winds (trade wind desert)

  • Temperate desert – rainless due to interior location

  • Sahara Desert – 3200 miles long & 1000 mile wide – 3.5 million square miles – more than 50 states of USA

  • Next Biggest – Great Australian Desert

  • Atacama/Peruvian Desert – Driest of all desert

  • Patagonian Desert – rain shadow position on leeward side of Andes

  • Rainfall < 10 inches – ARIDITY

  • Hot Desert – across Horse latitude or Subtropical High Pressure Belt – air is descending - off shore trade winds – wind from cold to warm area (low Relative Humidity - 30%)

  • Depressions in Asiatic continental mass – light rainfall

Vegetation

  • Scrub & herbs

  • Dormant vegetation

  • Xerophytic or drought –resistant scrub cactus, thorns, trees are rare & date palms

  • Salinity of soil – salt accumulates – hard pans

  • Deficient in humus

  • Leaves are waxy and leathery, needle shaped – reduce transpiration

  • Cactus – thick succulent stems

  • Seeds have thick and tough skin

Life in Deserts

Bedouin of Arab

  • Best nomadic herdsman

  • Trade

  • Caravan merchants

  • Oases people

  • Wander for water & pastures

  • Animals – sheep, goat, camel, horse – dairy milk and cheese, skin, hair, wool

Bushmen of Kalahari (Nomadic Hunters & Food Gatherers)

  • bow & poisoned arrows

  • skill to obtain water in desert – store in ostrich shell

  • suck water from ground by hollow reed

  • travel in family groups (sherms)

Bindibu of Australia (Nomadic Hunters & Food Gatherers)

  • Lean and dark, healthy

  • Wooden stick – boomerangs

  • Domesticate – dingo (wild dog)

  • Women gather grass and roots

  • Lives in groups

  • Close to water supply

  • Houses called wurlies (simple shelters)

Nomadic Herdsman

  • Ride animals

  • Bedoiuns – ride horse, live in tents

  • Tuaregs (Shara) – camel rider, dwell in grass zeriba

  • Gobi Mongols – ride horse to herd yaks & live in yurts (tents)

Camel

  • Ship of desert

  • Hooves to walk in sand

  • Broad padded feet

  • Store water in stomach

  • Store fat in hump

Settled Cultivators

  • Irrigation

  • Network of canals

  • Egypt – Nile delta – basin irrigation

  • Summer – rice & cotton

  • Winter – Wheat, barley, beans

  • Dam – Aswan & Sennar

  • Indus in Pakistan, Tigris – Euphrates in Iraq, Colorado river in Imperial valley of California

  • Oasis formation – Tafilalet in Morocco (5000 square miles) & Ghadames oasis of Libya – wall constructed to keep away simoom (dust storms)

  • Mud brick houses with flat roof

  • Narrow streets, suq (central market place)

Mining Settlers

  • Gold – Great Australian Desert

  • Diamond & copper – Kalahari Desert

  • Caliche (sodium nitrate) – Atacama

  • Copper – Chuquicamata, Antofagasta, Iquique, Nevada

  • Silver –Mexico

  • Uranium – Utah

  • Oil- Sahara & Arab desert – liquid gold