Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 19 – Warm Temperate Western Mediterranean Climate YouTube Lecture Handouts

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 367K)

Get video tutorial on: https://www.youtube.com/c/Examrace

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 19: Warm Temperate Western Mediterranean Climate Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 19: Warm Temperate Western Mediterranean Climate
Loading Video
Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

  • Western area between

  • Shifting of wind belts

  • Winter rain climate

Dry Warm Summer with offshore trades

  • Trade winds are offshore – no rain

  • Air is dry – intense heat & RH is low

  • Interior – prolonged droughts

  • Night – Rapid radiation & frosts are rare

Rainfall in winter with on-shore Westerlies – rainfall in winter when Westerlies shift equatorward

  • N. Hemisphere – On-shore westerlies bring cyclonic rain

  • Heavy showers with bright sunny periods

  • Mountains act as barrier to onshore westerlies – Iberia, Meseta & Sierra – Portugal coast is wetter than E. Spain

  • Steep hills of eastern Adriatic – rainiest

  • Rain starts in Sept., peak in Oct.

  • Can cause floods – Libson (1967)

Climate is transition b/w Trade wind hot desert (S) & Cool temperate maritime (N)

Local Winds

Sirocco- Hot, dry dusty wind – from Sahara – most frequent in spring – accompanied by depressions.

  • Chili – Tunisia

  • Ghibli – Libya

  • Leveche – Spain

  • Khamsin – Egypt & Malta

  • Gharbi – Adriatic & Aegean Sea – cause fog & rain – blood rain (red dust)

  • Mistral – Cold wind from north – down to Rhone valley (40-80 miles/hr) – funneling effect (b/w Alps & Central Massif)

  • Bora – cold northeasterly wind along Adriatic coast – difference in pressure b/w continental Europe and Mediterranean – occur in winter

  • Tramontana – cold wind

  • Gregale – cold wind

Natural Vegetation

  • Trees with small broad leaves

  • Absence of shade

  • Growth slow in cooler & wetter season

  • Growth restricted to autumn and spring – good moisture & high temp.

  • Mediterranean evergreen – open woodlands – evergreen oaks (cork oak – Spain & Portugal- thick bark for wine-making bottle cork & its export). Australia – Eucalyptus, Jarrah & karri. California – giant sequoia or redwoods

  • Evergreen coniferous trees – pines, firs, cedar & cypress

  • Mediterranean bushes – low bush in scattered clump – laurel, lavender, rosemary. Scrub vegetation – scattered, stunted tree and tall bushes –

  • Maquis – France

  • Macchia – Italy

  • Chaparral – California

  • Mallee Scrub – Australia

Limestone upland – thin soil – xerophytic ground creeper (garrigue)

Grass – slow growing, wiry, bunchy

Economic Development

Mediterranean shorelands – cradle of civilization

Orchard framing – citrus fruits – orange, lime, lemon, citron, grapefruit – long roots to draw water in summer droughts

Irrigation canals – Great Valley of California, Vale of Chile, Negev Desert of Israel

  • Sunkist oranges – squash – California

  • Seville oranges – marmalade – Spain

  • Jaffa oranges – Israel

  • Tangerine oranges – Tangiers

  • Mandarin oranges – China & Japan

70% orange export from Mediterranean

Olives – Hardy & long rooted – survive on poor limestone with scanty rainfall – versatile, species, oil, cooking, soap etc.

Nuts – chestnut, almond, walnut, hazelnut

Fruits – Peach, apricot, pear, plum, cherry, fig

Wheat – hard winter wheat – macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli (sowing in autumn)

Barley – important cereal

Wine

Best from grapes – 85% grapes used for wine

Viticulture – wine production – 3/4th from Mediterranean region

Wine as national drink – Spain, Portugal, France & Italy

Wine cultivation – climate, soil, fermentation

  • Sherry – France

  • Port Wine – Portugal

  • Asti & Marsala – Italy

  • Champagne in Paris (France)

  • Bordeaux in Garonne (France)

  • Burgundy in Rhone-Saone Valley (France)

Dried Grapes

  • Currants – Levantine grapes

  • Raisins – California

  • Sultanas – Asia Minor

Also known for fruit canning, flour milling & food processing