Goh Cheng Leong: Chapter 2 YouTube Lecture Handouts Geography

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Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 2: The Earth՚s Crust (Physical and Human Geography)

Certificate Physical & Human Geography Goh Cheng Leong

Chapter 2: The Earth՚s Crust

Structure of Earth

  • Crust
  • Mantle
  • Core
Structure of Earth

Rock Classification - Igneous

  • Magma
  • Crystalline
  • No layers
  • No fossils
  • Silica – Acid, less dense & light
  • Fe, Al & Mg – Basic, dense & dark
  • Plutonic – at depth, cool and solidify slowly – intrusive (granite, diorite & gabbro)
  • Volcanic – lava, rapid solidify, small crystals, basalt, extrusive
  • Basalt – polygonal columns in Giant Causeway Antrim (N. Ireland) , Deccan (India) , Columbia-Snake (USA) – Dyke () & Sills ()
  • Hard & resistant
  • Road making and monuments
Rock Classification - Igneous

Rock Classification - Sedimentary

  • Sediments
  • Layers
  • Stratified
  • Non-crystalline
  • Fossils
  • Mechanically: cemented together, sandstone – coarse (grit) ; round (conglomerate) ; angular (breccia) ; fine – clay & mudstone
  • Organically: living organisms, calcareous (limestone & chalk) ; carbonaceous (swamp & forest) – coal (peat, lignite and coal)
  • Chemically: rock salt (seabeds) , gypsum or - Dead Sea, Potash & nitrates
Rock Classification - Sedimentary
Rock

Rock Classification - Metamorphic

  • Changed
  • Pressure and heat
  • Clay Slate
  • Limestone Marble
  • Sandstone Quartzite
  • Granite Gneiss
  • Shale Schist
  • Coal Graphite
Rock Classification - Metamorphic

Mountain Orogeny

Mountain Orogeny

Types of Mountains -Fold

  • Fold Mountain – stress and wrinkles, fold on line of weakness, mountains of elevation
  • Overfold, Recumbent and nappe
  • Volcanic (Circum Pacific)
  • Sn, Cu, Au & petroleum
Types of Mountains - Fold

Types of Mountains -Block

  • Faulting – Tension or Compression
  • Horst or block
  • Garben or rift
  • Tension – Hunsruck, Vosges & Black Forest, East African Rift Valley – Major (subside)
  • Compression – Thrust or reverse fault (uplift)
Types of Mountains-Block

Types of Mountains -Volcanic

  • Lava, bomb, cinder, ash, dust
  • Mountain of accumulation
  • Mt. Fuji (Japan)
  • Mt. Mayon (Philippines)
  • Mt. Merapi (Sumatra)
  • Mt. Agung (Bali)
  • Mt. Catopaxi (Ecuador)
    Types of Mountains - Valcanic
    Types of Mountains

Types of Mountains -Residual

  • Denudation
  • Mt. Manodrock (USA)
  • Dissected Plateaux – downcutting – Scotland, Scandinavia and Deccan

Types of Plateaux - Tectonic

  • 4 Tablelands
  • Earth movements
  • Deccan (India)
  • Tilted – Meseta (Iberia)
  • Faulted – Harz (Germany)
  • Intermont – b/w 2 mountains (Tibetan b/w Himalayas and Kunlun; Bolivia b/w Andes)

Types of Plateaux - Volcanic

  • Basaltic – lava – solidify
  • Antrim (N. Ireland)
  • NW Deccan (India)
  • Columbia-Snake (USA)

Types of Plateaux - Dissected

  • Weathering and erosion
  • Deep cuts
  • Stream and glacial actions
  • Scottish Highlands
  • Mesa and butte (SW USA)
  • Brazilian plateau (Minas Gerias) – Fe & Mn
  • Deccan – Mn, Fe and Coal
  • W. Australia – Au & Fe

Types of Plains

  • Area of lowland
  • Low hills with rolling topography
    • Indo-Gangetic plain
    • Mississippi plains
    • Yangtze plain
  • Grasslands
    • Russian – Steppes
    • N. America – Prairies
    • Argentina – Pampas
  • Structural – structurally depressed and lowlands – Russian, Great Plains and lowlands of Australia

Types of Plains - Depositional

  • Deposition by various agents
  • Rivers – alluvial plains, flood plains and deltas
    • Nile, Egypt: Rice and cotton
    • Ganga, India: jute and rice
    • Hwang Ho, China: many crops
  • Glacial – outwash plains (boulder clay) – barren – Holland and N. Germany; Midwest USA; East Anglia (England)
  • Coastal - waves and winds – Belgium, Netherlands, Gulf coast of USA (lowlands) & Florida to Texas (uplands)
  • Aeolian – loess – China, Pampas- fill grooves

Types of Plains - Erosional

  • By agents of erosion – wind, water, rain, ice
  • Plains of denudation – peneplains (humid)
  • River deepen and widen (highlands are lowered)
  • Glaciated – ice-scoured plains – hollows scoop out ice and filled with water; Finland – 35,000 lakes with 10 % area
  • Wind – deflation – eroded material; stony plains – reg in Africa – mountains with gentle slope pediments and pediplains (arid & semi-arid with inselbergs- steep hills)

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