Goh Cheng Leong: Chapter 2 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 2: The Earth's Crust (Physical and Human Geography) Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 2: The Earth's Crust (Physical and Human Geography)
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Certificate Physical & Human Geography Goh Cheng Leong

Chapter 2: The Earth’S Crust

Structure of Earth

  • Crust

  • Mantle

  • Core

Image of Structure of Earth

Image of Structure of Earth

Image of Structure of Earth

Rock Classification - Igneous

  • Magma

  • Crystalline

  • No layers

  • No fossils

  • Silica – Acid, less dense & light

  • Fe, Al & Mg – Basic, dense & dark

  • Plutonic – at depth, cool and solidify slowly – intrusive (granite, diorite & gabbro)

  • Volcanic – lava, rapid solidify, small crystals, basalt, extrusive

  • Basalt – polygonal columns in Giant Causeway Antrim (N. Ireland), Deccan (India), Columbia-Snake (USA) – Dyke ( ) & Sills ( )

  • Hard & resistant

  • Road making and monuments

Image of Rock Classification - Igneous

Image of Rock Classification - Igneous

Image of Rock Classification - Igneous

Rock Classification - Sedimentary

  • Sediments

  • Layers

  • Stratified

  • Non-crystalline

  • Fossils

  • Mechanically: cemented together, sandstone – coarse (grit); round (conglomerate); angular (breccia); fine – clay & mudstone

  • Organically: living organisms, calcareous (limestone & chalk); carbonaceous (swamp & forest) – coal (peat, lignite and coal)

  • Chemically: rock salt (seabeds), gypsum or - Dead Sea, Potash & nitrates

Image of Rock Classification - Sedimentary

Image of Rock Classification - Sedimentary

Image of Rock Classification - Sedimentary

Image of Rock

Image of Rock

Image of Rock

Rock Classification - Metamorphic

  • Changed

  • Pressure and heat

  • Clay Slate

  • Limestone Marble

  • Sandstone Quartzite

  • Granite Gneiss

  • Shale Schist

  • Coal Graphite

Image of Rock Classification - Metamorphic

Image of Rock Classification - Metamorphic

Image of Rock Classification - Metamorphic

Mountain Orogeny

Image of Mountain Orogeny

Image of Mountain Orogeny

Image of Mountain Orogeny

Types of Mountains -Fold

  • Fold Mountain – stress and wrinkles, fold on line of weakness, mountains of elevation

  • Overfold, Recumbent and nappe

  • Volcanic (Circum Pacific)

  • Sn, Cu, Au & petroleum

Image of Types of Mountains - Fold

Image of Types of Mountains - Fold

Image of Types of Mountains - Fold

Types of Mountains -Block

  • Faulting – Tension or Compression

  • Horst or block

  • Garben or rift

  • Tension – Hunsruck, Vosges & Black Forest, East African Rift Valley – Major (subside)

  • Compression – Thrust or reverse fault (uplift)

Image of Types of Mountains-Block

Image of Types of Mountains-Block

Image of Types of Mountains-Block

Types of Mountains -Volcanic

  • Lava, bomb, cinder, ash, dust

  • Mountain of accumulation

  • Mt. Fuji (Japan)

  • Mt. Mayon (Philippines)

  • Mt. Merapi (Sumatra)

  • Mt. Agung (Bali)

  • Mt. Catopaxi (Ecuador)

Image of Types of Mountains - Valcanic

Image of Types of Mountains - Valcanic

Image of Types of Mountains - Valcanic

Image of Types of Mountains

Image of Types of Mountains

Image of Types of Mountains

Types of Mountains -Residual

  • Denudation

  • Mt. Manodrock (USA)

  • Dissected Plateaux – downcutting – Scotland, Scandinavia and Deccan

Types of Plateaux - Tectonic

  • 4Tablelands

  • Earth movements

  • Deccan (India)

  • Tilted – Meseta (Iberia)

  • Faulted – Harz (Germany)

  • Intermont – b/w 2 mountains (Tibetan b/w Himalayas and Kunlun; Bolivia b/w Andes)

Types of Plateaux - Volcanic

  • Basaltic – lava – solidify

  • Antrim (N. Ireland)

  • NW Deccan (India)

  • Columbia-Snake (USA)

Types of Plateaux - Dissected

  • Weathering and erosion

  • Deep cuts

  • Stream and glacial actions

  • Scottish Highlands

  • Mesa and butte (SW USA)

  • Brazilian plateau (Minas Gerias) – Fe & Mn

  • Deccan – Mn, Fe and Coal

  • W. Australia – Au & Fe

Types of Plains

  • Area of lowland

  • Low hills with rolling topography

    • Indo-Gangetic plain

    • Mississippi plains

    • Yangtze plain

  • Grasslands

    • Russian – Steppes

    • N. America – Prairies

    • Argentina – Pampas

  • Structural – structurally depressed and lowlands – Russian, Great Plains and lowlands of Australia

Types of Plains - Depositional

  • Deposition by various agents

  • Rivers – alluvial plains, flood plains and deltas

    • Nile, Egypt: Rice and cotton

    • Ganga, India: jute and rice

    • Hwang Ho, China: many crops

  • Glacial – outwash plains (boulder clay) – barren – Holland and N. Germany; Midwest USA; East Anglia (England)

  • Coastal - waves and winds– Belgium, Netherlands, Gulf coast of USA (lowlands) & Florida to Texas (uplands)

  • Aeolian – loess – China, Pampas- fill grooves

Types of Plains - Erosional

  • By agents of erosion – wind, water, rain, ice

  • Plains of denudation – peneplains (humid)

  • River deepen and widen (highlands are lowered)

  • Glaciated – ice-scoured plains – hollows scoop out ice and filled with water; Finland – 35,000 lakes with 10% area

  • Wind – deflation – eroded material; stony plains – reg in Africa – mountains with gentle slope pediments and pediplains (arid & semi-arid with inselbergs- steep hills)