Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 22 – Warm Temperate Western Margin (British) Climate YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

  • Under permanent influence of Westerlies

  • Cyclonic activity

  • Oceanic influence

  • Also called North-West European Maritime Climate

  • N. America – Rockies prevent it from penetrating inland

  • S. hemisphere – New Zealand, Tasmania & Chile

Climate

  • Mean annual temperature between

  • Summers never very warm

  • Heat waves are welcomed

  • Ideal climate for maximum comfort and mental alertness

  • Most advanced parts of world

  • Winters are mild with no station below freezing point

  • Warming effect of warm North Atlantic Drift & South Westerlies

  • Night frosts & winter snow fall is seen

  • Climate is equable with warm summers and mild winters

  • South hemisphere – lack of continental mass – so no extremes of temperature seen – considered “favored isles”

Precipitation

  • Rainfall throughout the year

  • Tendency towards slight winter or autumn maximum by cyclonic activities

  • Western margins have highest rainfall (as rain bearing winds come from west)

  • Relief creates difference with western slopes of Southern Alps at 200 inches and Canterbury plains (rain shadow area) at 25 inches

  • Western coastal stations are wetter

Seasons

  • Winter: Light snowfall but over Rockies and Scandinavian snowfall is heavy, cloudy sky, foggy & misty mornings. At sea, gales are frequent & can be dangerous

  • Spring: Driest and refreshing

  • Summer: Long and sunny

  • Autumn: Gusty winds and golden leaves

Natural Vegetation

  • Deciduous forest

  • Shed leaves in winters – to protect against snow and frost

  • Autumn: fall season – shedding of leaves

  • Valuable temperate hardwood: Oak, elm, birch, beech, poplar

  • Wetter Areas: Willows, Alder, Aspen

  • Other species – elsewhere – chestnut, maple, lime

  • Pure strands

  • Greater lumbering

  • Sparse undergrowth

  • Hardwood good for fuel and industrial use

  • Tasmania – Eucalyptus (lumbering)

  • Rockies, Andes and Alps (higher altitude) – conifers

Economic Development

NW Europe: Little surplus for export & a net importer of food crop mainly wheat

Fishing: Britain, Norway & British Columbia

Market Gardening

  • Everywhere where there is high urban population & is highly industrialized & has more demand for fresh vegetables and fruits

  • NW Europe: Intensive Market gardening in Vales of York and Evesham in UK. Small farms, loamy and podzolic soil, high fertility, intensive cropping, fruits shipped by trucks and hence called truck farming in USA

  • SW England: warm and wet soil with less population

  • Early vegetables, potato & tomato from Canary Is., Brittany Is. and Channel Is. to London

  • Bulbs and flowers from polderlands of Netherlands

  • Egg, bacon & dairy products from Denmark

  • Netherlands: horticultural industry and flown to far off places

  • Australia: High speed boats ply across Bass Strait & so Tasmania named as garden state

Mixed Farming

  • Both arable farming & pastoral framing

  • Crops for cash and fodder

  • Proportion of crops and animals in farm depends on soil, price and demand

  • Wheat is extensively grown but entirely for home consumption

  • Arable farms devoured by factories and Europe is importer of wheat now

  • Barley: Sold to breweries for beer making and whisky distilling in drier areas

  • Malting barley – SE Britain where rain < 30 inches

  • Heavy soil & wet areas: barley as fodder mixed with oats as dredge corn

  • Both are raised in crop rotation with leguminous crop (beans) and root crop (turnips)

  • Cattle: NW Europe home to Guernsey, Ayrshire, Friesian (milk)

  • Near North Sea – Britain, Denmark and Netherlands as advanced dairying nations

  • Casein is dairy product used for making plastics, paper and drugs

  • Cheese: Netherlands (Edam and Gouda)

  • Butter: Denmark

  • Cream: Devon & Cornwall – less perishable

  • Swiss alpine pastures – to dairy cattle

  • Beef cattle: Hereford and Aberdeen Angus (but less in number as compared to Argentina and Australia)

  • Europe imports frozen and chilled beef

  • Pigs and Poultry as scavengers for left over from root crops and dairy

  • Denmark: Export bacon from pigs (fed on skimmed milk-byproduct of butter making)

Sheep Rearing

  • Britain breeds of sheep – Leicesters, Lincolns, Southdowns – dual purpose for mutton and wool

  • Pennines: Swaledale breed

  • Scottish Highlands: Blackface breed

  • Southern Uplands: Cheviot breed

  • Welsh Mountains: Black Welsh breed

  • SE England: Romney Marsh breed

  • Previously was exporter of wool

  • Now exporter of pedigree animals to newer sheep lands

  • S. hemisphere – sheep reared in Canterbury plains (New Zealand)

  • 20 sheep per New Zealander

  • New Zealand: 4% sheep but 2/3rd mutton export of world and 1/6th wool exports

Other Activities

Potato

  • Dominant crop and staple food to supplement wheat or bread

  • Cold and northerly climate is preferred to avoid blight (virus disease)

  • Introduced by Peru & Bolivia in 16th century

  • 2/3rd of world annual production from Europe (Poland, France, Germany, UK)

  • Consumed as animal fodder and industrial alcohol

Beet Sugar

  • In NW Europe excluding European USSR & parts of USA

  • Need felt during Napoleonic Wars in 1800 due to scarcity of sugar

  • 1st beet sugar factory established in 1801

  • Farmers given subsidies for the crop

  • Grown for cash sales or with cereals in crop rotation

  • Best in warm and dry areas east of Britain

  • Highest sugar yield when autumn is dry and sunny

  • Most beet sugar factories in Fens (coastal plains of East England) & East Anglia