Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 24 – Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Laurentian) Climate YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 24: Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Laurentian) Climate

Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 24: Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Laurentian) Climate

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Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of Arctic or Polar Type

Image of World Map

Image of World Map

Image of World Map

  • Intermediate b/w British & Siberian climate

  • Both maritime & continental

  • Only in 2 regions

  • NE USA (Maritime Province, New England & New Found land) & E. Canada or America Region

  • E. Asia, E. Siberia, N. China, Manchuria, Korea & N. Japan – Asiatic Region

  • 👌 Absent in SH – small section of continents, oceanic influence and climate is equable

  • 👌 Only exception could be E. Patagonia (south of Bahia Blanca to Tierra del Fuego) – but climatic barrier and Westerlies don’t reach as a result it has aridity & annual precipitation is less than 10 inches (rain shadow desert)


  • Cold dry winters – temperature below freezing point, winds are dry westerlies from continental interiors

  • Warm wet summers (has cooling effect of offshore cold currents)

  • Rainfall – year round

  • Distinct summer maximum from easterly winds from oceans

  • Annual precipitation -30-60 inches and 2/3rd in summers

North American Region

  • Uniform rainfall (due to Atlantic influence & Great Lakes) with later summer maximum

  • Warm Gulf Stream increases moisture content of easterly winds from open Atlantic

  • Westerlies across Rockies carry depression over Great Lakes to New England States – promote wet conditions in winters (good for agriculture)

  • 👌 Mixing of warm Gulf Stream & cold Labrador Current produces mist and fog & increase precipitation

  • Newfoundland experience more drizzles than any other part of the world

  • Summers – Westerlies bring less depression & continental influence extends till coast – temperature range , high relative humidity and prolonged heat waves

  • Annual temperature range is

Asiatic Region

  • Winters are cold and dry

  • Summers are warm and wet

  • Peking – 7 dry months from October to April (only 2.1 inch rain) which is 1/12th of annual 25 inch rain; highest in July

  • Mountain interiors of China – intense heating in summer, low pressure & moisture winds from Pacific Ocean and Sea of Japan blow in SE Monsoon – also called cool temperate monsoon climate

  • Long cold winters and big annual range

  • Annual temperature range is

  • Dry cold wind from Asia in winter carries fine yellow dust as loess in Shansi, Shensi & Hwang Ho

  • Winter rain as snow in N. China, Korea, Hokkaido in Japan

  • Climate modified by insularity – meeting of warm & cold currents – SE Monsoon in summer and NW monsoon in winters (dry and cold wind)

  • 2 rain maxima – one in June (Plum Rain) & other in September (Typhoon Rain)

  • 👌 Warm Kuroshio & Cold Oyashio which produces mist and fog making Japan “second Newfoundland” – fishing replaces agriculture in coastlands

Natural Vegetation

  • Cool temperate forest

  • Heavy rain, warm summer, damp air from fog

  • Coniferous trees north of latitude – forest not adaptable to cold conditions – are continuation of taiga

Image of Coniferous Vegetation

Image of Coniferous Vegetation

Image of Coniferous Vegetation

  • Lumbering is main activity – timber as export item

  • Fir, spruce and larch is seen

  • Deciduous trees south of latitude – oak, beech, maple, birch – open with long growing season of 6 months & moisture for rapid growth of ferns

Image of Lumbering Trees

Image of Lumbering Trees

Image of Lumbering Trees

  • Trees occur in pure stands – easy commercial exploitation

  • Canada – greater reserve of coniferous softwoods

Economic Development

  • Lumbering – timber, paper and pulp industries

  • Agriculture – potatoes on podzolized soil, oats and barley

  • Asiatic region – Soyabeans (N. China, Manchuria & Korea), groundnut, sesame, rapeseed, tung oil and mulberry

  • N. American region – dairy farming, hay cultivation, fruit growing

  • Annapolis valley in Nova Scotia – world’s most renowned region of apples

  • Fishing is common



  • World’s largest fishing ground on Grand Banks of Newfoundland – abundant planktons in shallow waters, gentle continental slope, fleets from Canada, USA, Norway, France, Britain, Denmark, Russia, Japan for fishing land here

  • Newfoundland less than 1% is cultivated and fishing is major employment source & major export

  • 👌 Pelagic fish on surface & Demersal fish in deep waters

  • Main fish is cod – consumed fresh or dried, salted, smoked or packed in ice

  • Cod liver oil is exported

  • Other fishes – Haddock, halibut, hake, herring, plaice, mackerel

  • Trawlers, conical nets, drifters, rectangular nets are seen – equipped with radar and radio devices to move through dense fog, avoid collisions with iceberg and contact headquarters

  • Offshore fishermen use traps, lines and nets – to catch crabs, lobsters, shrimps

  • 👌 Freshwater fishes – salmon, trout, eel, sturgeon

  • Major fishing ports

  • 👌 St. John’s in Newfoundland – headquarters of Grand Banks fishing industry – known for sealing and whaling

  • Halifax & Yarmouth in Nova Scotia & New England are processing plants – cut, clean, salt, preserve fish

  • Highly specialized activity and overfishing is growing problem


  • NW Pacific fishing area – scarcity of meat & religious practices made fish as major diet & chief source of protein

  • Fish waste, fish meal and seaweeds as fertilizer in farms

  • Known for seaweed cultivation

  • 👌 Pearl culture (South Japan) – shell fish called pearl oysters and highly prized pearls – lining is called as mother of pearls to manufacture pearl buttons

  • Injection of tiny seeds in oysters are made to secrete pearl material which accumulates as cultured pearls

  • Known for whaling fleet – return to coast only for refueling or replenishment of fresh provisions

  • Japan known for 1/6th of total fish catch in world, greatest fishing nation

👌 Japan developed as Major Fishing Nation

  • 80% land in non-agricultural – so Japan needs to take to sea

  • Continental shelf are rich in planktons

  • Meeting of cold and warm currents

  • Indented coastline – sheltered fishing port, calm water, safe landing and ideal fishing

  • Hokkaido – climate too cold & fishing becomes primary

  • Hakote & Kushiro – large fishing ports and refrigeration facilities

  • Lack of lowlands and pastures

  • Main source of protein

  • Local demand and export purpose

  • From small boats, nets, traps and lines to commercial deep sea demersal fishing which is highly mechanized with trawlers & refrigeration plants

  • Major center for marine and fishing research

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