Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 24 – Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Laurentian) Climate YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 24: Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Laurentian) Climate
Arctic or Polar Type
World Map
  • Intermediate b/w British & Siberian climate
  • Both maritime & continental
  • Only in 2 regions
  • NE USA (Maritime Province, New England & New Found land) & E. Canada or America Region
  • E. Asia, E. Siberia, N. China, Manchuria, Korea & N. Japan – Asiatic Region
  • 👌 Absent in SH – small section of continents, oceanic influence and climate is equable
  • 👌 Only exception could be E. Patagonia (south of Bahia Blanca to Tierra del Fuego) – but climatic barrier and Westerlies don՚t reach as a result it has aridity & annual precipitation is less than 10 inches (rain shadow desert)


  • Cold dry winters – temperature below freezing point, winds are dry westerlies from continental interiors
  • Warm wet summers (has cooling effect of offshore cold currents)
  • Rainfall – year round
  • Distinct summer maximum from easterly winds from oceans
  • Annual precipitation -30 - 60 inches and 2 ⁄ 3rd in summers

North American Region

  • Uniform rainfall (due to Atlantic influence & Great Lakes) with later summer maximum
  • Warm Gulf Stream increases moisture content of easterly winds from open Atlantic
  • Westerlies across Rockies carry depression over Great Lakes to New England States – promote wet conditions in winters (good for agriculture)
  • 👌 Mixing of warm Gulf Stream & cold Labrador Current produces mist and fog & increase precipitation
  • Newfoundland experience more drizzles than any other part of the world
  • Summers – Westerlies bring less depression & continental influence extends till coast – temperature range , high relative humidity and prolonged heat waves
  • Annual temperature range is

Asiatic Region

  • Winters are cold and dry
  • Summers are warm and wet
  • Peking – 7 dry months from October to April (only 2.1 inch rain) which is 1 ⁄ 12th of annual 25 inch rain; highest in July
  • Mountain interiors of China – intense heating in summer, low pressure & moisture winds from Pacific Ocean and Sea of Japan blow in SE Monsoon – also called cool temperate monsoon climate
  • Long cold winters and big annual range
  • Annual temperature range is
  • Dry cold wind from Asia in winter carries fine yellow dust as loess in Shansi, Shensi & Hwang Ho
  • Winter rain as snow in N. China, Korea, Hokkaido in Japan
  • Climate modified by insularity – meeting of warm & cold currents – SE Monsoon in summer and NW monsoon in winters (dry and cold wind)
  • 2 rain maxima – one in June (Plum Rain) & other in September (Typhoon Rain)
  • 👌 Warm Kuroshio & Cold Oyashio which produces mist and fog making Japan “second Newfoundland” – fishing replaces agriculture in coastlands

Natural Vegetation

  • Cool temperate forest
  • Heavy rain, warm summer, damp air from fog
  • Coniferous trees north of latitude – forest not adaptable to cold conditions – are continuation of taiga
Coniferous Vegetation
  • Lumbering is main activity – timber as export item
  • Fir, spruce and larch is seen
  • Deciduous trees south of latitude – oak, beech, maple, birch – open with long growing season of 6 months & moisture for rapid growth of ferns
Lumbering Trees
  • Trees occur in pure stands – easy commercial exploitation
  • Canada – greater reserve of coniferous softwoods

Economic Development

  • Lumbering – timber, paper and pulp industries
  • Agriculture – potatoes on podzolized soil, oats and barley
  • Asiatic region – Soyabeans (N. China, Manchuria & Korea) , groundnut, sesame, rapeseed, tung oil and mulberry
  • N. American region – dairy farming, hay cultivation, fruit growing
  • Annapolis valley in Nova Scotia – world՚s most renowned region of apples
  • Fishing is common



  • World՚s largest fishing ground on Grand Banks of Newfoundland – abundant planktons in shallow waters, gentle continental slope, fleets from Canada, USA, Norway, France, Britain, Denmark, Russia, Japan for fishing land here
  • Newfoundland less than 1 % is cultivated and fishing is major employment source & major export
  • 👌 Pelagic fish on surface & Demersal fish in deep waters
  • Main fish is cod – consumed fresh or dried, salted, smoked or packed in ice
  • Cod liver oil is exported
  • Other fishes – Haddock, halibut, hake, herring, plaice, mackerel
  • Trawlers, conical nets, drifters, rectangular nets are seen – equipped with radar and radio devices to move through dense fog, avoid collisions with iceberg and contact headquarters
  • Offshore fishermen use traps, lines and nets – to catch crabs, lobsters, shrimps
  • 👌 Freshwater fishes – salmon, trout, eel, sturgeon
  • Major fishing ports
  • 👌 . John՚s in Newfoundland – headquarters of Grand Banks fishing industry – known for sealing and whaling
  • Halifax & Yarmouth in Nova Scotia & New England are processing plants – cut, clean, salt, preserve fish
  • Highly specialized activity and overfishing is growing problem


  • NW Pacific fishing area – scarcity of meat & religious practices made fish as major diet & chief source of protein
  • Fish waste, fish meal and seaweeds as fertilizer in farms
  • Known for seaweed cultivation
  • 👌 Pearl culture (South Japan) – shell fish called pearl oysters and highly prized pearls – lining is called as mother of pearls to manufacture pearl buttons
  • Injection of tiny seeds in oysters are made to secrete pearl material which accumulates as cultured pearls
  • Known for whaling fleet – return to coast only for refueling or replenishment of fresh provisions
  • Japan known for 1 ⁄ 6th of total fish catch in world, greatest fishing nation

👌 Japan developed as Major Fishing Nation

  • 80 % land in non-agricultural – so Japan needs to take to sea
  • Continental shelf are rich in planktons
  • Meeting of cold and warm currents
  • Indented coastline – sheltered fishing port, calm water, safe landing and ideal fishing
  • Hokkaido – climate too cold & fishing becomes primary
  • Hakote & Kushiro – large fishing ports and refrigeration facilities
  • Lack of lowlands and pastures
  • Main source of protein
  • Local demand and export purpose
  • From small boats, nets, traps and lines to commercial deep sea demersal fishing which is highly mechanized with trawlers & refrigeration plants
  • Major center for marine and fishing research

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