Goh Cheng Leong: Chapter 3 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Certificate Physical & Human Geography Goh Cheng Leong

Chapter 3: Vulcanism and Earthquakes

Volcano

Image of Volcano

Image of Volcano

Image of Volcano

Intrusive Landforms

  • Laccolith

  • Lopolith

  • Phacolith

  • Batholith

  • Sills

  • Dykes

Origin

  • Vulcan – God of Underworld – furnace below Volcano in Sicily

  • At zones of weakness – fold or fault

  • Temperature increase for for 65 feet

  • Magma has gases - Sulphur, Nitrogen , Chlorine – through the vent or opening

Types of Lava

  • Acidic – light colored, highly viscous, flow slowly, steep-sided, pyroclasts, bombs, spine or plug form crater as Mt. Pelee (Martinique), plug remains in Puy de Dome, France

  • Basic – hottest, highly fluid, Fe & Mg, lack silica, dark color, highly fluid, flow quietly, thin sheets and spread over large area – shield or dome

Types of Volcano

  • Active - Kilauea

  • Dormant - Mauna Kea

  • Extinct - Kohala

Extrusive Landforms

  • Lava Plains and Basalt Plateaux – fluid – Snake basin, USA; Deccan; Iceland

  • Lava domes or shield volcanoes – volcanic cones – Mauna Loa & Kilauea (caldera with active vent pours forming lava pit of Halemaumau)

  • Ash & cinder cones – less fluid – large crater & steep slope – small volcano in groups – Mt. Nuovo (Naples) & Mt. Paricutin (Mexico)

  • Lava tongues & lava dammed lakes – confined in valleys

  • Lava bridges

  • Lava tunnels

  • Volcanic dust – fine particles

  • Dust and Ash – black snow

  • Pyroclast – coarse fragments – cinders/lapilli, scoria, pumice and volcanic bombs

Composite Cones

  • Highest and most common

  • Called Stratocones – main conduit and subsidiary dykes and pipes

  • Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)

  • Mt. Stromboli (Lighthouse of Mediterranean)

  • Mt. Vesuvius

  • Mt. Fiji

  • Mt. Popacatapetl

  • Mt. Chimborazo

Mt. Vesuvius

  • Bay of naples – erupted 79AD

  • Parasitic cone

  • White hot lava

  • Cauliflower form – pyroclasts & ashes

  • City of Pompeii – buried beneath 25 feet of ashes

  • City of Herculaneum – mudflow – 50 feet thick

  • In 1631 – avalanche with red hot debris – ruined 15 towns and killed 4,000, 1 foot thick ashes in Naples

Mt. Krakatau

  • August 1883

  • B/w Java & Sumatra

  • Dense black cloud – 20-50 miles high

  • 2/3rd island collapsed

  • Caldera formed

  • Explosion heard 3000 miles away

  • 36,000 people drowned in coastal areas

  • Erupted again in 1927 – pushed cinder cone from submarine floor of 220 ft ASL by 1952

  • Anak Krakatau or Child of Mt. Krakatau formed

Mt. Pelee

  • West Indies

  • Erupted in 1902

  • White hot lava

  • Superheated stream

  • Nuee ardente (glowing avalanche)

  • 30,000 except 2 killed in St. Pierre (capital of Martinique)

  • Spine formed by pasty lava- solidified

Image of Mount Pelee

Image of Mount Pelee

Image of Mount Pelee

Image of Circum-Pacific Belt And Alpine-Himalayan Belt

Image of Circum-Pacific Belt and Alpine-Himalayan Belt

Image of Circum-Pacific Belt And Alpine-Himalayan Belt

Distribution of Volcanoes

  • Circum-Pacific ring of fire or Pacific ring of fire – 2/3rd volcanoes

  • 100 active volcano in Philippines, 40 in Andes, 35 in Japan, 70 in Indonesia

  • Pacific coast – more active (Aleutian, Java, Sumatra, Kamchatka, Solomon, New Hebrides)

  • Atlantic coast – less active (Madeira, Ascension, Helena, Cape Verde, Canary)

  • Iceland & Azores – active

  • Mediterranean – associated with Alpine folds (Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Volcano)

  • Himalayas – no active volcanoes

  • Africa – East African Rift valley – active (Cameroon), extinct (Kilimanjaro and Kenya)

Geyser & Hot Springs

  • Geyser – fountain of hot water – Iceland, Rotorua (N. Island, New Zealand), Yellowstone National Park (USA) – Old Faithful erupts every 63 minutes

  • Hot Springs – dissolved minerals – Iceland, Hawaii, Japan

Image of Geyser And Hot Springs

Image of Geyser and Hot Springs

Image of Geyser And Hot Springs

Earthquakes

  • 50,000 tremors per year

  • Minor – vibrations

  • Major – faults

  • Tidal waves – tsunamis

  • Fire

  • Building collapse

  • Fissures open- surface waves

  • Infrastructure affected

  • Measured seismograph

Major Earthquakes

  • 1755: Great Libson (Atlantic west) – tidal waves – 60,000 died

  • 1923: Tokyo & Yokohama –

  • 1906: San Francisco

  • 1920: Kansu, China – 2 lakh died & 1 lakh cave dwellers in 1927 affected

  • 1960: Agadir, Morocco: 10,000 died

  • 1968: Kakh, E. Iran

Distribution of Earthquakes

  • Coincides with volcanoes

  • 70%: Circum-Pacific belt

  • 20%: Mediterranean-Himalayan belt