Paradigm and Geographical Thoughts: Attributes of Paradigm

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Geographical Thought

  • Interaction b/w philosophical viewpoint and methodological approach
  • Philosophy – Samuel՚s Humanistic Geography, Peet՚s Radical geography
  • Methodological – Hartshorne՚s Nature of Geography, James՚s All Possible Worlds
  • Methodological – logical explanation, internally coherent


  • Constellation of beliefs, values, techniques shared by community
  • Kuhn – Structure of Scientific Revolutions – 1962 – 21 different ways
  • Master man – 3 ways
    • Metaphysical (global or gestalt view) – concerns, where to look and what to discover
    • Sociological (concrete scientific achievement)
    • Artefact or Construct (textbook or instrument) - problem solution paradigm - subject specific nature
  • Disciplinary matrix for paradigms – common to practitioners as ordered set of elements required for individual specifications
  • Kuhn՚s single or multiple paradigm was not clear
  • Metaparadigm and Sociological are prior to theory
  • Theories are not paradigm but one aspect of paradigms

Master Man՚s Paradigms

  • Non-Paradigm – no paradigm & subject matter cannot be differentiated
  • Multiple Paradigm – many paradigms compete – question the basic assumption of those who accept other paradigms (criticized as she regards them as stage in emergence of paradigmatic science)
  • Dual Paradigm – led to emergence of single paradigm, 2 paradigms compete for control.
  • Non-paradigm ⇾ dual paradigm ⇾ single paradigm
  • It is impossible to be unidirectional formulation
  • Move from pre-paradigmatic ⇾ multiple paradigmatic ⇾ single/dual paradigmatic

Attributes of Paradigm (Ritzer)

  • Exemplar (fundamentals) – Durkheim՚s Rule of Sociological Method
  • Image of Subject (subject matter) – Social Structure & institutions
  • Theories – Structuralism – Functionalism
  • Methods – Questionnaires
  • Kuhn & Popper – nature of social relationships are actualized in real world
  • Not just knowledge that causes changes – it is caused by revolution and linkage of events
  • Paradigm A ⇾ normal science (accumulate knowledge) ⇾ anomalies ⇾ crisis (discontent) > revolution ⇾ paradigm B

Paradigm and Philosophy

  • Personal attitude towards life , does not shrink with difficult problems
  • Reflective thinking and logical inquiry
  • Critical evaluation of facts
  • Develop view about whole system
  • Logical analysis of language and clarification of remaining words
  • Philosophy – Comprehensive view, synthetic, synoptic, quality of nature , life as whole, combine and synthesis
  • Science – analytic, analyze whole into elements
  • Philosophy – speculative, descriptive, normative, analytical – evaluates what has been done and creates framework for research
  • Set of philosophies with sufficient communality of focus and approach and group of practitioners many constitute paradigms – multi-faceted topics in research.

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